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Chapter IV, Section 4

INTRODUCTION

The attainment of Brahmaloka by the worshippers of the Saguna Brahman has been treated in the last Section. This Section deals with the realisation of the Highest Brahman by its worshippers.

SYNOPSIS

Adhikarana I: (Sutras 1-3) the released soul does not acquire anything new but merely manifests itself in its true nature.

Adhikarana II: (Sutra 4) determines that relation in which the released soul stands to Brahman is that of Avibhaga, non-separation.

Adhikarana III: (Sutras 5-7) discuss the characteristics of the soul that has attained the Nirguna Brahman. According to Jaimini the released soul, when manifesting itself in its true nature, possesses the attributes which in Chh. Up. VIII.7.1 and other places are ascribed to Brahman, such as Apahatapapmatva (freedom from sin), Satyasankalpatva (true volition) and Aisvarya (Omniscience) etc.

According to Audulomi the only characteristics of the released soul is Chaitanya or pure intelligence.

According to Baadarayana the two views can be combined. The two views describe the released soul from two different standpoints, viz., relative and transcendental and so there is no contradiction between the two.

Adhikarana IV: (Sutras 8-9) The soul which has attained the Saguna Brahman effects its desires be mere will.

Adhikarana V: (Sutras 10-14) A released soul which has attained Brahmaloka can exist with or without a body according to its liking.

Adhikarana VI: (Sutras 15-16) The released soul which has attained the Saguna Brahman can animate several bodies at the same time.

Adhikarana VII: (Sutras 17-22) The released soul which has attained Brahmaloka has all the lordly powers except the power of creation, etc. There is no return to this world for these released souls.

SAMPADYAVIRBHAVADHIKARANAM: TOPIC 1 (SUTRAS 1-3)

The liberated soul does not acquire anything new

but only manifests its essential or true nature

Sampadyavirbhavah svena sabdat IV.4.1 (534)

(When the Jiva or the individual soul) has attained (the highest light) there is manifestation (of its own real nature) as we infer from the word 'own'.

Sampadya: having attained; Avirbhavah: there is manifestation; Svena sabdat: from the word 'own'. (Svena: by one's own; Sabdat: inferred from the word.)

The Chhandogya text says Now this serene and happy being, after having risen out of this body and having attained the highest light, manifests itself by its own nature (Chh. Up. VII.12.3).

The Purvapakshin holds that the Jiva or the individual soul which has freed itself from identification with the three bodies attains emancipation after realising Brahman. Release also is a fruit like other fruits, e.g., Svarga or heaven. Manifestation means as much as origination. Liberation was not a pre-existent thing. It is something that is newly acquired like heaven, as the word 'reaches' in the text clearly indicates. Therefore emancipation is something new that is acquired by the individual soul. If the manifestation took place only through the self's own nature, it would already appear in the self's former states, because a thing's own nature is never absent in it.

The present Sutra refutes this view and says that the word 'own' indicates that emancipation was a pre-existent thing. The individual soul manifests its own, essential divine nature which was so long covered by ignorance (Avidya). This is his attainment of the final beatitude or release. It is certainly nothing that is newly acquired.

Muktah pratijnanat IV.4.2 (535)

(The self whose true nature has manifested itself is) released; according to the promise (made by scripture).

Muktah: the liberated one, released, freed; Pratijnanat: according to the promise.

The previous Sutra is further elucidated.

Emancipation is a cessation of all bondage and not the accession of something new, just as health is merely the removal of illness and not a new acquisition.

If release is nothing new that is acquired by the individual soul, then what is its difference from bondage? The Jiva was stained in the state of bondage by the three states, i.e., the state of waking, dreaming and dreamless sleep. According to Chhandogya Upanishad VIII. 9-11, It is blind It weeps as it were It goes to utter annihilation. It imagines itself to be finite. It identifies itself with the illusory vehicles or Upadhis and experiences pleasure, pain, joy and sorrow. After Self-realisation it realises its true nature which is absolute bliss. It is freed from all erroneous notions and misconceptions. It is freed from Avidya or ignorance and its effects. It is perfect, free, independent. This is the difference.

Annihilation of ignorance is salvation. Eradication of all erroneous notions or misconceptions is liberation. Destruction of the veil of ignorance, that separates the individual soul from the Supreme Soul is emancipation or the final beatitude.

But how is it known that in its present condition the soul is released? On account of the promise made in the scriptures, says the Sutra.

The Chhandogya Upanishad says, I will explain It to you further (Chh. Up. VIII.9.3; VIII.10.4; VIII.11.3). Here the Sruti proposes to expound that Self which is free from all imperfections. It begins thus, The Self which is free from sin (Chh. Up. VIII.7.1). It being without the body, is not touched by pleasure and pain (Chh. Up. VIII.12.1), and concludes By his own nature he manifests himself. That is the highest person. The serene being rises above its body, reaches the highest light and appears in its own true nature (Chh. Up. VIII.12.3).

Atma prakaranat IV.4.3 (536)

(The light into which the individual soul enters is) the Supreme Self; owing to the subject matter of the chapter.

Atma: the Supreme Self; Prakaranat: on account of the subject matter of the discourse or context.

This Sutra says that the individual soul recovers his own Self (the Supreme Self) as stated in Sutra 1.

The Purvapakshin holds: How can the soul be called liberated considering that the clause (having entered into) the highest light speaks of it as within the sphere of what is a mere effect? Because the word 'light' in common parlance denotes physical light. No one who has not transcended beyond the sphere of effects can be liberated, as whatever is an effect is tainted with evil.

We reply: this objection is without force. It cannot stand; for in the passage referred to in the Chh. Up. VIII.3.4 the word 'light' denotes the Self Supreme, in accordance with the subject matter of the Chapter and not any physical light.

The word 'Jyotih' (light) in the passage refers to the Atma which is described as sinless, undecaying and deathless (Ya Atma apahatapapma vijaro vimrityuhChh. Up. VIII.7.1).

We, therefore, may not all at once pass over to physical light incurring thereby the fault of abandoning the topic under discussion and introducing a new one.

The word 'light' is also used to denote the Self in the texts like The gods meditate on the immortal Light of all lights as longevity (Bri. Up. IV.4.16). We have discussed this in detail under I.3.40.

AVIBHAGENA DRISHTATVADHIKARANAM: TOPIC 2

The released soul remains inseparable from the Supreme Soul

Avibhagena drishtatvat IV.4.4 (537)

(The Jiva in the state of release exists) as inseparable (from Brahman), because it is so seen from the scriptures.

Avibhagena: as inseparable; Drishtatvat: for it is so seen from the scriptures.

A doubt arises whether the individual soul in the state of emancipation exists as different from Brahman or as one with and inseparable from It.

The present Sutra declares that it exists as inseparable from Brahman, because the Sruti texts declare so. Thou art That, Tat Tvam Asi (Chh. Up. VI.8.7). Aham Brahma Asmi, I am Brahman (Bri. Up. I.4.10). Where he sees nothing else (Chh. Up. VII.24.1). Being but Brahman, he is merged in Brahman (Bri. Up. IV.4.6). All these Sruti passages declare that the emancipated soul is identical with Brahman.

Such passages as Just as pure water poured into pure water remains the same, thus O Gautama, is the self of a thinker who knows (Katha Up. II.4.15), whose object is to describe the nature of the released soul, declare that there is non-separation only. The same follows from the comparison of the soul entering Brahman to rivers falling into the sea.

Passages which speak of difference have to be explained in a secondary sense, expressing non-separation or unity.

Brahmadhikaranam: Topic 3 (Sutras 5-7)

Characteristics of the soul that has attained the Nirguna Brahman

Brahmena jaiminirupanyasadibhyah IV.4.5 (538)

(The released soul exists) as possessed of (the attributes of) Brahman; (thus) Jaimini (opines) on account of the reference etc.

Brahmena: as possessed of the attributes of Brahman; Jaiminih: Jaimini (holds); Upanyasadibhyah: on account of the reference etc.

The view of the sage Jaimini is stated in this connection.

It has been stated that the released soul attains Brahman. Brahman has two aspects, viz., one the unconditioned aspect as pure consciousness and the other as described in the Chhandogya Upanishad VIII.7.1: The Atman which is free from evil, undecaying, undying, free from sorrow, hunger and thirst, with true desires (Satyakama) and true volitions (Satyasankalpa).

A doubt arises now, which aspect does the released soul attain? Jaimini maintains that the liberated soul attains the conditioned aspect. Why? Because this is known from reference to the nature of the self as being such in the text cited. The qualities of Omniscience and Omnipotence are mentioned. Hence Jaimini opines that the released soul attains the conditioned aspect of Brahman.

Chititanmatrena tadatmakatvadityaudulomih IV.4.6 (539)

(The released soul exists) solely as pure consciousness or Intelligence, that being its true nature or essence; thus Audulomi (thinks).

Chititanmatrena: solely as pure consciousness (Tanmatrena: solely); Tadatmakatvat: that being its true nature or essence; Iti: thus, so; Audulomih: Audulomi (thinks).

The view of sage Audulomi is stated in this connection.

This Sutra gives another view about the state of emancipation. This is the view of the sage Audulomi. Audulomi says that it is the realisation of the soul's essential nature as pure Chaitanya (knowledge, consciousness or intelligence). The soul is solely of the nature of Pure Consciousness. It exists as such in the state of release.

This conclusion will also agree with other scriptural texts such as Bri. Up. IV.5.13: Thus this Self has neither inside nor outside, but is altogether a mass of knowledge.

Although the text enumerates different qualities such as freedom from sin, etc., these qualities rest only on fanciful conceptions due to difference of words; because what the text intimates is only absence in general of all qualities such as sin and the rest.

Evamapyupanyasat purvabhavadavirodham

baadarayanah IV.4.7 (540)

Thus also, on account of the existence of the former qualities admitted owing to reference and so on, there is no contradiction (between the two); (so thinks) Baadarayana.

Evam: thus; Api: even; Upanyasat: on account of reference; Purvabhavat: owing to attribution of properties mentioned before; Avirodham: there is no contradiction; Baadarayanah: Baadarayana (thinks).

The author's own view is now stated.

Baadarayana reconciles both and says that the affirmation of the divine attributes of Omniscience and Omnipotence is from the point of view of God's nature when the soul is bound, while the affirmation of the soul's nature as pure knowledge is from the point of view of its released state.

Although it is admitted that intelligence constitutes the true nature of the Self, also the former nature, i.e., lordly power like that of Brahman, which is intimated by reference and the rest is with a view to the world of appearances not rejected. Hence there is no contradiction. This is the opinion of the teacher Baadarayana.

SANKALPADHIKARANAM: TOPIC 4 (SUTRAS 8-9)

The soul which has attained the Saguna Brahman

effects its desire by mere will

Sankalpadeva tu tacchruteh IV.4.8 (541)

But by mere will (the liberated souls attain their purpose), because scriptures say so.

Sankalpat: by the exercise of will; Eva: only; Tu: but; Tat-sruteh: because Sruti says so.

The powers and privileges which a liberated soul acquires are stated here.

In the meditation on Brahman within the heart we read as follows: If he desires the world of the fathers (Pitriloka) by his mere will they come to him (Chh. Up. VIII.2.1).

A doubt here arises whether the will alone is the cause to get the result, or the will combined with some other operative cause.

The Purvapakshin holds that although scripture says by his mere will some other cause must be supposed to cooperate as in ordinary life. Because, as in ordinary experience the meeting with one's father is caused by one's will, and in addition by the act of going and so on, so it will be with the case of the liberated soul also.

This Sutra says that by mere will the result comes, because the Sruti so declares. If any other cause were required, the direct scriptural statements by his will only would thereby be contradicted.

The will of the liberated soul is different from the will of ordinary men. It has the power of producing results without any operative cause.

Ata eva chananyadhipatih IV.4.9 (542)

And for this very same reason (the released soul is) without another Lord.

Ata eva: for the very reason, therefore, so; Cha: and; Ananyadhipatih: without any other Lord.

The previous topic is continued.

For the very same reason, i.e., owing to the fact of the will of the released person being all-powerful, he who knows has no other Lord over himself. Because not even an ordinary person when forming wishes, will, if he can help it, wish himself to be subject to another master. Even in this world no one could willingly have master to lord over him. Scripture also declares that a released soul is master of himself. For them there is freedom from all worlds (Chh. Up. VIII.1.6).

ABHAVADHIKARANAM: TOPIC 5 (SUTRAS 10-14)

A liberated soul who has attained Brahmaloka can exist

with or without a body according to his liking

Abhavam baadariraha hyevam IV.4.10 (543)

There is absence (of body and organs, in the case of the liberated souls) (asserts) Baadari, for thus scripture says.

Abhavam: absence (of body and organs); Baadarih: the sage Baadari (asserts); Aha: (the Sruti) says; Hi: because; Evam: thus.

There follows a discussion whether the liberated soul possesses a body or not.

The passage By his mere will the fathers rise shows that the liberated soul possesses a mind, whereby he wills. A doubt arises whether he possesses a body and the organs.

The teacher Baadari says that he does not, because the scripture declares so, And it is by means of the mind that he sees the desires and rejoices (Chh. Up. VIII.12.5). This clearly indicates that he possesses only the mind and not the organs, etc. There are neither body nor sense-organs in the state of emancipation.

Bhavam jaiminirvikalpamananat IV.4.11 (544)

Jaimini (asserts that the liberated soul) possesses (a body and the organs) because the scriptures declare (the capacity on the part of such a soul to assume) various forms.

Bhavam: existence; Jaiminih: Jaimini (holds); Vikalpa- mananat: because the scripture declares (the capacity to assume) divine forms. (Vikalpa: option, diversity in manifestation; Amananat: from statement in Sruti.)

A contrary view to Sutra 10 is adduced.

The teacher Jaimini is of the opinion that the liberated soul possesses a body and organs as well as a mind. the Chhandogya Upanishad declares He being one becomes three, five, seven, nine (Chh. Up. VII.26.2). This text says that a liberated soul can assume more than one form. This indicates that the released soul possesses besides the mind, a body and the organs.

Dvadasahavadubhayavidham baadarayano'tah IV.4.12 (545)

For this reason Baadarayana opines that the released person is of both kinds as in the case of the twelve days' sacrifice.

Dvadasahavat: like the twelve days' sacrifice; Ubhayavidham: (is) of both kinds; Baadarayanah: Baadarayana (thinks); Atah: so, therefore, from this, from this very reason.

A decision is given on the conflicting views noted above.

Baadarayana affirms from the twofold declarations of the two scriptures that a liberated soul who has attained Brahmaloka can exist both ways, with or without a body, according to his liking. It is like the twelve days' sacrifice, which is called a Satra as well as an Ahina sacrifice.

Tanvabhave sandhyavadupapatteh IV.4.13 (546)

In the absence of a body (the fulfilment of desires is possible) as in dreams, as this is reasonable.

Tanvabhave: in the absence of a body; Sandhyavad: just as in dreams (which stand midway between waking and deep sleep); Upapatteh: this being reasonable.

An inference is drawn from the conclusion arrived at in Sutra 12.

When there is no body or sense-organs, the wished for objects are experienced by the liberated souls just as embodied persons experience joy in dreams.

Bhave jagradvat IV.4.14 (547)

When the body exists (the fulfilment of desires is) as in the waking state.

Bhave: when the body exists; Jagradvat: just as in the waking state.

When there are the body and sense-organs, the wished for objects are experienced by the liberated souls, just as embodied persons experience joys in the waking state.

PRADIPADHIKARANAM: TOPIC 6 (SUTRAS 15-16)

The liberated soul which has attained the Saguna Brahman

can animate several bodies at the same time

Pradipavadavesastatha hi darsayati IV.4.15 (548)

The entering (of the released soul into several bodies) like (the multiplication of) the flame of a lamp because thus the scripture declares.

Pradipavat: like the flame of a lamp; Avesah: entering, animating; Tatha: thus, so; Hi: because; Darsayati: the scripture shows (or declares).

This Sutra shows the possibility of the liberated soul of simultaneously possessing several bodies other than his own.

In Sutra 11 it has been shown that a released soul can assume many bodies at the same time for enjoyment.

A doubt arises whether the bodies which the released create for themselves when rendering themselves threefold and so on are soulless like wooden figures or animated by souls like the bodies of men.

The Purvapakshin maintains that as neither the soul nor the mind can be divided, they are joined with one body only, while other bodies are soulless. Other bodies are lifeless puppets. Enjoyment is possible only in that body in which the soul and mind exist.

This Sutra refutes this view and says, Like the flame of a lamp in their entering i.e., just as the one flame of a lamp can enter into different wicks lighted from it, the released soul, although one only, multiplies itself through its lordly power and enters into all these bodies. It creates bodies with internal organs corresponding to the original internal organs and being limited by these divides itself as many. Therefore, all the created bodies have a soul which renders enjoyment through all of these bodies possible. Scripture declares that in this way one may become many. He is onefold, he is threefold, fivefold, sevenfold (Chh. Up. VII.6.2).

The Yoga Sastras also make the same affirmation.

Svapyayasampattyoranyatara-

pekshamavishkritam hi IV.4.16 (549)

(The declaration of absence of all cognition is made) having in view either of the two states, viz., deep sleep and absolute union (with Brahman), for this is made clear (by the scriptures).

Svapyayasampattyoh: of deep sleep and absolute union (with Brahman); Anyatarapeksham: having in view either of these two; Avishkritam: this is made clear (by the Sruti); Hi: because. (Svapyaya: deep sleep; Anyatara: either, any of the two; Apeksham: with reference to, with regard to.)

The range of knowledge of the liberated soul is now discussed.

The Purvapakshin holds: How can lordly power, enabling the released soul to enter into several bodies and enjoy be admitted if we consider the different scriptural texts which declare that the soul in that state has not any specific cognition? e.g., What should one know and through what? (Bri. Up. II.4.14). But there is not the second thing separate from it which it can know (Bri. Up. IV.3.30). It becomes like water, one, witness and without a second (Bri. Up. IV.3.32).

This Sutra says that these texts refer either to the state of deep sleep or to that of final release in which the soul attains absolute union with the Nirguna Brahman.

Those passages on the other hand, which describe lordly power refer to an altogether different condition which like the heavenly world, is an abode where knowledge of Saguna Brahman produces its results.

We have been discussing in the previous Sutras about one who has not attained absolute union with Nirguna Brahman but only Brahmaloka. There is cognition in Brahmaloka. There is enjoyment also in heaven. The difference between heaven and Brahmaloka is that one does not return to this world from Brahmaloka whereas one returns to this universe from heaven when the results of his virtuous deeds have been exhausted.

JAGADVYAPARADHIKARANAM: TOPIC 7 (SUTRAS 17-22)

The liberated soul which has attained Brahmaloka

has all the lordly powers except the power of creation

Jagadvyaparavarjam prakaranadasannihitattvaccha IV.4.17 (550)

(The liberated soul attains all lordly powers) except the power of creation, etc., on account of (the Lord being) the subject matter (of all texts where creation, etc., are referred to) and (the liberated souls) not being mentioned (in that connection).

Jagadvyaparavarjam: except the power of creation, etc., Prakaranat: (on account of the Lord being) the subject matter, because of the general topic of the chapter; Asannihitattvat: on account of (liberated souls) not being mentioned on account of non-proximity; Cha: and. (Jagat: world; Vyapara: creation etc.; Varjam: excepted.)

The limitations of the released souls' power are stated here.

A doubt here presents itself whether those who through meditation on the Saguna Brahman enter Brahmaloka possess unlimited lordly power or power limited to some extent.

The Purvapakshin maintains that their powers must be unlimited, because we meet with texts such as They can roam at will in all the worlds (Chh. Up. VII.25.2; VIII.1.6). He obtains self-lordship (Tait. Sam. I.6.2). To him all the gods offer worship (Tait. Sam. I.5.3). For him there is freedom in all worlds (Chh. Up. VIII.1.6).

This Sutra says that the liberated souls attain all lordly powers such as Anima, rendering oneself to atomic size, etc., except the power of creation, etc. Creation, preservation and destruction, on the other hand can belong to the everlastingly perfect Lord only. Why so? Because the Lord is the subject matter of all the texts dealing with creation, etc., while the released souls are not mentioned at all in this connection.

Further, this would lead to many Isvaras. If they have the power of creation of the universe they may not be of one mind. There may be conflict of wills with respect to creation, etc. One may desire to create, and another to destroy. Such conflicts can only be avoided by assuming that the wishes of one should conform to those of another and from this it follows that all other souls depend on the Highest Lord.

Hence the powers of the released souls are not absolute but limited and are dependent on the will of the Lord.

Pratyakshopadesaditi

chennadhikarikamandalasthokteh IV.4.18 (551)

If it be said that the liberated soul attains absolute powers on account of direct teaching of the scriptures, we say no; because the scriptures declare that the liberated soul attains Him who entrusts the sun, etc., with their offices and abides in those spheres.

Pratyakshopadesat: on account of direct teaching; Iti: so, thus; Chet: if; (Iti chet: if it be said); Na: not; Adhikarikamandala- sthokteh: because the scripture declares that the soul attains Him who entrusts the sun, etc., with their offices and abodes in those spheres. (Adhikarika: the master of a world, a world-ruler; Mandalastha: existing in spheres, i.e., those abiding in the spheres, of those entrusted with the special functions; Ukteh: as it is clearly stated in Sruti.)

An objection to Sutra 17 is raised and refuted.

This Sutra consists of two parts, namely an objection and its reply. The objection portion is, Pratyakshopadesat; the reply portion is Nadhikarikamandalasthokteh.

He becomes the Lord of himselfApnoti svarajyam (Tait. Up. I.6). From the direct teaching of the Sruti the Purvapakshin maintains that the limited soul attains absolute powers.

This present Sutra refutes this and says that his powers depend on the Lord, because the text cited further on says, He attains the Lord of the mind, the Lord who dwells in spheres like the sun, etc., and entrusts the sun, etc., with offices.

Therefore, it is quite clear from this latter part of the text that the liberated soul obtains its powers from the Lord and depends on Him. Hence its powers are not unlimited. He attains powers as the gift of the Supreme Lord who is in the sun, etc., and who bestows the function of controlling the orb of the sun, on the sun-god.

Vikaravarti cha tatha hi sthitimaha IV.4.19 (552)

And (there is a form of the Supreme Lord) which is beyond all created things (because, so the scripture declares) (His) existence (in a two-fold form unmanifest and manifest).

Vikaravarti: which is beyond all effected things, becomes incapable of transformation by birth, decay, death, etc.; Cha: and; Tatha: so; Hi: because; Sthitim: status, condition, existence; Aha: (Sruti) declares.

The description of the status of the liberated soul is continued.

According to scripture, there is also an internal form of the Supreme Lord, which does not abide in effects. He is not only the ruling soul of the spheres of the sun and so on which lie within the sphere of what is effected.

The text declares this abiding in a two-fold form as follows: Such is the greatness of it; greater than that is the Purusha; one foot of Him is all beings; His other three feet are what is immortal in heaven (Chh. Up. III.12.6).

This text intimates that the Highest Lord abides in two forms, the transcendental and the relative.

He who meditates on the Lord in His relative aspect does not attain the transcendental aspect. He who worships the Lord as having form cannot attain the formless Brahman, because of the law of proportion of fruit to desire. The Sruti declares As one meditates upon That, so he becomes.

As the meditator on the relative aspects of the Lord is unable to comprehend it fully, he attains only limited powers and not unlimited powers like the Lord Himself.

Darsayataschaivam pratyakshanumane IV.4.20 (553)

And thus perception and inference show.

Darsayatah: they both show; Cha: and; Evam: thus; Pratyaksha-anumane: Pratyaksha and Anumana, perception and inference.

This Sutra declares that the transcendental aspect of the Lord is established by both the Sruti and Smriti. Sruti and Smriti both declare that the highest light does not abide within effected thing, The sun does not shine there, nor the moon and the stars, nor these lightnings and much less this fire (Mun. Up. II.2.10). The sun does not illumine it, nor the moon, nor fire (Bhagavad Gita, XV.6).

Bhogamatrasamyalingaccha IV.4.21 (554)

And because of the indications (in the scriptures) of equality (of the liberated soul with the Lord) only with respect to enjoyment.

Bhogamatra: with respect to enjoyment only; Samya: equality; Lingat: from the indication of Sruti; Cha: also, and.

That the powers of the liberated soul are not unlimited is also known from the indication in the Sruti that the equality of these souls with the Lord is only with regard to enjoyment and not with respect to creation, etc.

As all beings honour that Deity, so do all beings honour him who knows that (Bri. Up. I.5.20). Through it he attains identity with the Deity, or lives in the same world with it (Bri. Up. I.5.23).

All these texts describe equality only with regard to enjoyment. They do not mention anything with reference to creation, etc.

Anavrittih sabdadanavrittih sabdat IV.4.22 (555)

(There is) no return (for these liberated souls), on account of the scriptural statement (to that effect).

Anavrittih: no return; Sabdat: on account of the scriptural statement.

The discussion on the privileges of the liberated soul is concluded here.

The Purvapakshin maintains: If the powers of the liberated souls are limited, then they too will come to an end like all limited mortal beings. Therefore, the liberated souls will have to return to this world from Brahmaloka.

This Sutra refutes this and says that those who go to Brahmaloka by the path of the gods do not return from there. Because scriptural passages teach that they do not so return. Going up by that way, one reaches immortality (Chh. Up. VIII.6.6). Those who proceed on that path do not return to the life of man (Chh. Up. IV.15.6). He reaches the world of Brahman and does not return (Chh. Up. VII.15.1). They no more return to this world (Bri. Up. VI.2.15).

The repetition of the words No return, etc., indicates that the book is finished.

Thus ends the Fourth Pada (Section 4) of the Fourth Chapter (Adhyaya IV) of the Brahma Sutras or the Vedanta Philosophy of Sri Baadarayana or Sri Veda-Vyasa or Sri Krishna-Dvaipayana, the Avatara of Lord Sri Hari. May His blessings be upon you all.


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