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Transcending The Mind

by Swami Sivananda

I solemnly affirm that the disease of birth and death can be removed only through the divine panacea of mind-mastery; not through any other means. The path of annihilation of the mind will be most beneficial to you and will never generate the least of pains. If the mind is destroyed by dint of discrimination, then maya (illusion) will not afflict you. There is no other vessel on this earth to sail the ocean of rebirth, than mastery of this turbulent mind.

Tame the mind. Collect your thoughts. Keep the mind serene. Think not of evil. You will enter the realm of deathlessness, dominion of eternal bliss. Withdraw the senses from their objects. Collect the rays of the mind. Direct the mind towards the ajna cakra (or the space between the eyebrows) and fix it there steadily.

Understand the mind; know how to manage it. Mind abhors a vacuum. Aversion and desire, both are binding two monkeys sitting on the tree of the heart. While they continue to shake and agitate it there can be no peace.

Man falls into the cycle of births and deaths through his own thoughts, his own ignorance. Liberation means nothing but the destruction of the impurities of the mind. If your mind is free and pure, you will not again enter into birth.

Control of the mind is not done in a day but by constant practice and sustained dispassion. Victory will be yours. Become a true hero. Have mastery over the mind. Enter the illimitable realms of bliss. Blessed is he who has controlled his mind and achieved self-conquest.

Dispassion, discrimination, renunciation and meditation are enemies of the mind. You can destroy the mind easily, if you possess these virtues. The mind manifests itself as the external world in the shape of pain and pleasure. The mind subjectively is consciousness, while objectively it is this universe. The mind has the potency of creating or undoing the world in the twinkling of an eye.

THE SOURCE OF THE MIND

Creation, preservation, destruction, veiling and blessing are God's five kinds of actions. God is the ruler, the knower of the heart, and the prompter. He helps the student in a variety of ways-through dreams, the inner voice, talking through the mouths of others in conversation and in advice from friends.

Eternal bliss, supreme peace, eternal satisfaction, infinite happiness and unbroken joy can be had only in God. Attain God-consciousness or self-realisation through exclusive devotion to one aspect of the Lord, or by self-enquiry.

When, by analysing your own mind, you come face to face with something which is never destroyed, something which by its own nature is eternally pure, perfect, self-luminous and unchanging, you will no longer be miserable or unhappy. The nature of Brahman is Sat-Cidananda (Existence-Knowledge-Bliss-Absolute). What limits the individual soul's vision? It is only the mind.

Between the atman (self) and the organs of the senses, a connecting link is necessary. We acknowledge the existence of an internal organ, the mind, through which perception takes place. If we do not admit the internal organ, there would result either perpetual perception or perpetual non-perception.

Perception results when there is conjunction of atman, the sense and the object (these are the three instruments of perception). If this effect did not follow, perpetual non-perception would take place.

Neither is the case however. We have therefore to acknowledge the existence of an internal organ, on whose attention and non-attention perception and non-perception take place. This is the argument for the existence of the mind.

Mind is nothing but a collection of impressions. It is a bundle of habits. It is a collection of desires arising from contact with different objects. It is a collection of feelings aroused by worldly botherations; of ideas gathered from different objects. These desires, ideas and feelings change constantly.

Some of the old desires and feelings are constantly departing from the store-house, the mind, and being replaced by new ones. This constant change does not in any way interfere with the harmony of mental operations. Some ideas and feelings depart and those that remain work in healthy co-operation with the new arrivals. They work in harmony and this harmony sustains the identity of mental existence.

MIND IS ALL

Mind alone is the whole world, with its pains, old age, death, sin, earth, water, fire, air and ether, and all the internal organs. Mind binds man. He who has controlled his mind is a veritable god on earth. We live in a world of thoughts. First there is the thought and then there is the expression of that thought through the organ of speech.

Thought and language are intimately connected. Loving thoughts uplift and encourage others. Unkind thoughts, thoughts of anger, bitterness and malice injure others. Thoughts are things. Sound, touch, taste, form and odour, the waking, dream and deep sleep states-all are the products of the mind only.

Thoughts such as passion, anger, bondage, time-know all these to be the results of the mind. The only true laboratory is the mind. Study it, test it and then go beyond it. Then you will realise the truth; then you will discover the hidden soul. Only if your mind is quiet will you enjoy peace in your own home, as you will enjoy it in the forest.

Man has a mind. But mind is not man. Mind is a good servant. It is an instrument only. Utilise it tactfully and properly. The prime requisite for happiness is control of the mind or lower self. Your thought is imprinted on your face. Mind is a bridge that connects the human with the divine.

Your body, your business, your house, are all only ideas within your own mind. Thought is a dynamic force. Good thought is the first perfection; it is the real wealth. Emotion is the driving force at the back of the mind. Will-power is the master key to success. Knowledge, thought, intellect and reason are one.

Appetite, instinct, impulse and desire are one. Emotion, ambition, spirit and courage are one. The mind is the master of the body. The soul is the master of the mind. Thou art, in essence, immortal soul. Thou art above body and mind. Always remember this supreme fact and live in the awareness of thy spiritual nature.

MIND AND MATTER

Mind is not a gross thing, visible and tangible; its existence is nowhere seen; its magnitude cannot be measured; it does not require space in which to exist. Mind and matter are two aspects or subject and object of one and the same all-full Brahman-who is itself neither and yet includes both.

Mind precedes matter; this is the vedantic theory. Matter precedes mind; this is the scientific theory. Mind is immaterial only in the sense that it has not the characteristics of ponderable matter. It is not immaterial in the sense that Brahman-Pure Spirit-Is.

Mind is the subtle form of matter. Hence it is the prompter of the body. Mind is made of subtle, pure (satvic), atomic matter. Mind is all electricity. It is formed of the subtlest portion of food. The soul is the only source of intelligence; it is self-evident; it shines with its own light.

The organs or mind and senses derive their principle of activity and life from the soul. By themselves they are lifeless. Hence the soul is always the subject and never the object. Mind is the object of the soul.

It is a cardinal principle of vedanta that that which is an object for a subject is non-intelligent. Even the principle of self-consciousness is non-intelligence-it does not exist by its own light; it is the object of apperception to the soul.

Mind is composed of coarse or fine matter, according to the needs of the more or less unfolded consciousness connected with it. In the educated it is active and well-defined. In the undeveloped it is cloudy and ill-defined.

Absolute consciousness is common to all. It is one. All the workings of the mind are presented to the one common consciousness which is the witness of the mental vrttis. It is the mind that limits man, who is in reality, identical with Brahman.

This identity is realised when the veil of ignorance is removed. For Brahman, the mind is an object of perception. Atman directly cognises all the phenomena of the mind-desires, imagination, doubt, belief, shame, intellect, fear, etc.,-and yet remains quite unattached and unaffected.

THE MIND BECOMES THE BODY

The body with its organs, is no other than the mind. The physical body is the outward manifestation of the mind. Mind is the subtle form of the physical body. The mind, contemplating on the body, becomes the body itself. Then, enmeshed in it, is afflicted by it. All bodies have their seat in the mind. Should the mind be paralysed, the body will not evince any intelligence.

The mind performs all actions very speedily in the linga sarira (subtle body) and fluctuates thereby. But the gross body knows not anything and is inert. Should this gross body be dissolved, the mind quickly assumes a fresh body. This physical body is the mould, as it were, of the mind. It is made by the mind for the outpouring of its own energy, for its own enjoyment. Thereby it gains different experiences of this world through the organs of knowledge or perception.

The body is really our thoughts, moods, convictions and emotions objectivised, made visible to the naked eye. Every cell in our body suffers or grows, receives a life impulse or a death impulse, from every thought that enters the mind. You tend to grow into the image of the thing you think about most. When the mind dwells on a particular thought, a definite vibration of matter is set up. This tends to repeat itself, to become a habit.

The body follows the mind and imitates the changes. Every change in thought makes a vibration in your mental body and this, when transmitted to the physical body, causes activity in the nervous matter of the brain. And this activity in the brain and nerve cells causes electrical and chemical changes in the body.

Vedanta also adds : "See and feel Brahman everywhere. ignore the names and forms." This teaches you to develop atma bhava (feeling that the self is all) or Brahma bhava (feeling that Brahman is all) by vicara (enquiry) and right thinking and meditation.

When an idea exclusively occupies the mind, a mental state or bhava, corresponding to the nature of the idea comes in. Think of your enemy-the inimical bhava will manifest.

Think of mercy and universal love-prema (love) bhava or karuna (compassion) bhava will manifest. Think of universal service-seva (service) bhava will manifest. Think of Lord Krishna and his lilas-Krishna-prema bhava will manifest. Feeling always accompanies thinking it is like fire and heat-inseparable.

HOW TO CULTIVATE RIGHT THINKING

Every thought has an image, form, dimension, weight, shape, colour, etc. Thought is as much matter as a piece of stone. A table is a mental image plus some external something. Whatever you see outside has a counterpart in the mind. The pupil is a small round thing in the eye and the retina is another small structure in the eye. How is it that the image of a big mountain, seen through that small aperture, is cast onto the mind? How does the big form of the mountain enter a tiny hole in the eye? This is a marvel of marvels. The image of the mountain already exists in the mind. The mind is like a big, vast sheet of canvas cloth that contains all the pictures of the objects seen outside.

Thought moves and passes from one man to another. Thought readily influences people. A man with strong thoughts can readily influence people with weak thought. Telepathy is a branch of occult science wherein the yogi can transmit messages to any man in any part of the world.

A thought of anger or hatred sends arrows from the mental factory towards the person aimed at. It harms the individual, sets up discord and disharmony in the thought world and comes back again to the sender and harms him also. If one can understand the effect and power of thought, he will be more careful in the manufacture of his thoughts in his mental laboratory.

Develop the faculty of producing only satvic (pure) thoughts by protracted mental discipline, dietetic adjustments, repetition of good hymns with meaning, good company, the study of divine books, japa (repetition of God's name), meditation, pranayama (yoga breathing), prayer, etc. A good man can help his friend, even though he lives a long way away, by good thoughts alone. Do not allow evil thoughts to enter your mental factory. Always watch your thoughts. Avoid useless thinking. Conserve your mental energy.

To cultivate sublime thoughts always keep yourself occupied in doing virtuous deeds and in the study of religious books. Destroy random thinking. Think of only one subject and its different aspects. When you do this never allow any other thought to enter the conscious mind. Again and again withdraw the mind to the subject on hand. Then take up another thought when you have exhausted the previous one.

By this practice you will develop organised thinking. The mental images will gain intense strength and force; they will become clear-cut and well defined. In ordinary persons the mental images are undefined.

ON VRTTI

The mind stuff is citta. It is a mental substance. Vrtti or thought-wave is a modification of the mind-stuff. It is a process. Just as waves and bubbles arise from the surface of the ocean, so also these vrttis arise on the surface of the mind-ocean. Just as the sun's rays emanate from the sun, so also these mental rays (modifications of the vrtti), emanate from the mind-sun. Just as the sun merges itself into the horizon at sunset, by collecting all its rays, so also you have to merge in the sun of suns, absolute consciousness, eternal peace, by collecting all the dissipated mental rays and dissolving the mind itself.

The function of the vrtti in the mind is to cause the removal of the cause of ignorance covering objects. Gross ignorance is enveloping all objects. When it is removed, then perception of objects becomes possible.

Through its own effort the mind assumes the shape of any object, and concentrates upon itself. When the mind thinks of Brahman, the sole ultimate thought of Brahman is formed. Be vigilant. Watch the mind and its activities. The object does not bind you-it is the vrtti, the identification with the vrtti, that causes attachment and bondage.

If you become one with the mind, body and vrttis you get various sorts of miseries and sufferings. The whole universe is created by the vrttis alone. If these mental thought-waves subside you can attain the absolute state of highest peace and bliss. Just as soap cleanses the physical body, even so japa (repetition) of any mantra, dhyana (meditation) and kirtan (chanting), together with the practice of yama and niyama (discipline), cleanse the mind of all impurities. Just as you nourish the physical body with food, even so you will have to give food for the mind and spiritual food for the soul.

Only when the modifications cease do you enter the silence. Realise this. Close the eyes, draw in the senses, still the mind, silence the thoughts, sharpen the intellect, purify the citta, meditate on Om and chant it with feeling. Enter the silence. Silence is atman, the centre-it is in the heart-cave. When the mind runs from one object to another, the state in the interval, wherein you become mindless, is Brahman.

WAVES OF GANGA

Experience is never possible without consciousness. Anything that is eternal must be infinite and unlimited. Consciousness is unlimited; the consciousness of limitation shows that consciousness is greater than limitation. Perfection is the attainment of immortal life or pure consciousness. The enquiry of, "Who am I?" leads to self-realisation (Brahma-jnana). Divine wisdom can be attained only by those who are endowed with purity. Tear the veil. Realise the reality.

Pain is the effect of not having what is wanted, or having what is not wanted. Brahman is secondless. There is no pain or want in Brahman. Therefore pain is impossible in the absolute. Contact is the mother of pain. The absolute can have no contacts and therefore no pain. Brahman is free from all wants and desires because it includes everything in itself. Therefore it is an embodiment of bliss.

Bliss is not an attribute. It is the very constitutive essence of the self, or atman. As the self is absolute in nature, its bliss is also absolute. This is the same as Brahman.

Annihilate the ego. Reach the goal here and now. Take the inner essence and attain perfection. Relax not the keen vigilance against your most subtle foes-egoism and desire. Where can you see the Lord? I found the Lord where 'I' did not exist.

Where there is no sense of 'I', there is liberation. It is bondage to have the sense of 'I' and 'mine'. Identify with the all-pervading soul (atman). You will attain immortality. This is the secret of eternal life.

With the growth and expansion of your inmost being, you attain greater perfection and fulfilment of yourself, and bliss is the result thereof. Purge yourself from self-seeking and egoism. Escape from space-time limitations. Lose all sense of separateness. Unite with Brahman or the absolute. The practice of the presence of God will cause the ego-veil to dissolve.

Divine love will now manifest and eternal bliss will flow in. The Lord's grace is ever upon sincere, selfless souls.

HOW IMPRESSIONS ARE FORMED

An experience in the sense plane sinks into the depths of the subconscious mind. There it becomes a samskara (an impression). The impression of an experience is formed, in the citta, (subconscious mind), at the very moment that the mind experiences it. There is no gap between the present experience and the formation of the samskara in the subconscious mind.

One specific experience leaves one specific samskara and the memory of this specific experience springs from that particular samskara only, which was formed out of that particular experience.

When you first perceive an orange and taste it, you get knowledge of an orange. A samskara is formed in the subconscious mind at once. At any time this samskara can generate a memory of the object, the orange and knowledge of the orange. Though the object and the act of knowing are distinguishable, yet they are inseparable.

Samskara is also known as 'residual potency'. When all vrttis or thoughts die away, the frame of the mind remains, with the samskaras. This is termed the 'potential mind'. All samskaras co-exist in the mind. Vrttis slowly subside, leaving traces in the mind. These traces are samskaras. From them springs memory.

If you have yogic vision, you can vividly notice the marvels that take place in the mental factory of an individual. You can see how the vrtti arises in the mind-lake. You can see how it subsides. And you can see how a samskara is formed. You will be struck with wonder. Samskaras are like forces they either aid or inhibit one another.

The sum total of all samskaras is known as karmasaya (receptacle of works) and this is called sancita karma (accumulated works). When a man leaves the physical body he carries with him his astral body of seventeen tatvas (elements) and the karmasaya, to the mental plane. Karmasaya is burnt in toto by the highest knowledge, obtained through asamprajnata samadhi (the non-dual superconscious state).

UTILISE THE SUBCONSCIOUS MIND

The mental processes are not limited to the field of consciousness alone. The field of subconscious mentation is of a much greater extent than that of conscious mentation. Messages when ready, come out like a flash from the subconscious mind to the surface of the conscious mind, through the trap-door in the subconscious mind. Only ten per cent of the mental activities come into the field of consciousness. At least ninety per cent of our mental life is subconscious.

We sit and try to solve a problem. We fail. We look around. We try again and again but we fail. Suddenly the idea dawns that leads to the solution of the problem. The subconscious processes were at work. The subconscious mind is your constant companion and sincere friend. Even in sleep it works without rest. It arranges, classifies, compares, sorts the facts and figures and works out a satisfactory solution.

With the help of your subconscious mind you can change your vicious nature. By cultivating healthy, virtuous qualities you can overcome the vicious nature. If you want to overcome fear, mentally deny that you have fear. Concentrate your attention on the opposite quality, the ideal of courage. When courage is developed, fear vanishes by itself. Positive overpowers negative. You can establish new habits, new ideas, new tastes and new character in the subconscious mind, just by changing the old ones.

All actions, enjoyments and experiences leave their impressions in the subconscious mind, in the form of subtle impressions or residual potencies. Samskaras are the root cause for life and the experience of pleasure and pain. Revival of samskaras induces memory. The yogi dives deep inside and comes in direct contact with these samskaras.

He directly perceives them through inner yogic vision. When you desire to remember something you have to exert. You have to go down to the depths of the subconsciousness and then pick up the right thing from a curious mixture of multifarious, irrelevant matter.

CHANGE YOUR HABITS

Mind is a bundle of habits. Bad habits and prejudices, hidden in one's nature, will be brought to the surface of the mind when the opportunity comes. If you change the habits you can also change your character. You sow a habit and reap a character. You sow a character and reap a destiny.

Habits originate in the conscious mind but when they become established, by constant repetition, they sink into the unconscious mind and become our 'second nature'. Habit can however be changed by a new, healthy, agreeable habit, of a stronger nature. At present you are thinking, "I am the body". Think, "I am Brahman". In the course of time you will be established in Brahmic consciousness.

Do not be a slave to one idea. Whenever you get new, healthy ideas, the old ones must be given up. In the mind there is an internal fight ever going on between 'nature' and 'will', between the old, worldly habits and the new, spiritual habits.

In the case of aspirants, the fight is between the old samskaras of the sensual world and new, spiritual samskaras. It is a fight between the good impressions of the past and bad impressions of the past. It is a fight between viveka (wisdom) and instinctive mind and indriyas (senses).

Eventually will, which is pure, strong and irresistible, is bound to succeed. There is no doubt about this. As your reason grows and you become wiser and wiser-by study, by contact with the wise and by meditation-your mind must be well prepared to take up new, healthy, rational ideas and eschew the old, morbid ones.

Mind is your tool. When emotions arise, separate them, study them, analyse them-but do not identify yourself with them. Master your impulses, emotions and moods. Rise from the position of slave to that of a spiritual king.

Just as the repetition of a thought or action leads to perfection, so also does the recurrence of the same process, or the same idea, lead to the perfection of abstraction, concentration and meditation.

Give your full mind to God. Only then will you have realisation. Even if one ray of the mind runs outside, it is impossible to attain God-consciousness. You cannot enjoy peace of mind, you cannot practise meditation, if there is tossing of the mind. Destroy mundane desires through dispassion and surrender to the Lord.

MENTAL FACTORY

Now I will take you to the most wonderful mental factory. It is very close to you; it is a wonder of wonders. Even a rank materialist, if he is very sincere, will be turned into a perfect theist, instantly, if he closes his eyes for a moment and seriously reflects on the working of this marvellous factory. The Kena Upanishad opens with the following lines: "Who is the director of this mind? Who gives light and power to this mind?" It goes on "Brahman is the mind of minds, the prana (life) of pranas, the eye of eyes, the ear of ears."

What a bold philosophy. At once it raises man to an unerring solution for all the different problems of life. The four Mahavakyas (great utterances): "Prajnanam brahma (consciousness is the absolute); aham brahma asmi (I am the absolute); tat twam asi (that thou art); ayam atma brahma (the self is the absolute); infuse power and joy into the hearts of all hearers. They produce drastic changes in your life. Then you will laugh at the vain pomp, the empty glory and the artificial and miserable life of a rich man.

The eyes and the ears are the gate-keepers of this mental factory-they are the 'way in' and mouth is the 'way out'. Eyes and ears bring inside the mental factory matters for manufacture. Light and sound vibrations are brought inside through these two avenues.

First of all they are made into 'percepts' by the mind. They are then presented to the intellect. The intellect converts these 'percepts' into 'concepts' or ideas. These ideas are expressed by the outside gatekeeper, the organ of speech.

The external physical eyes and ears are mere instruments. But the real visual and auditory centres are in the brain and in the astral body-these are the real senses. Understand this point well. The intellect receives these materials from the mind and presents them to the purusa or atman (the self), who is behind the screen.

The mind is the head clerk of this mental factory. He has ten clerks, the five jnana indriyas (senses) to bring news from the facts outside. The facts are placed by the mind before the intellect, who places them before the purusa (inner self). A message comes back from the purusa to the buddhi (intellect). Buddhi decides and determines, and then gives the answer back to the mind, for execution. The five karma indriyas (organs of speech, hands, feet, genitals and anus) execute the order of the mind who is their master.

THE INNER INSTRUMENT

Antahkarana (the inner instrument) is a broad term which includes mind, intellect, memory and egoism (ahankara). The one antahkarana assumes different names, just as the same man assumes the name of judge when he works as a judge in the law courts, or president when he serves in a society or association, and store-keeper when he is in charge of the stores.

When you walk through a mango garden, the will and doubt are done by the mind-it thinks whether the mango is good or not. The intellect comes to its aid; it determines that the mango is 'good'. Then the citta (mind-stuff) finds out how to, get hold of some of the mangoes from the gardener. Ahankara self-arrogates. It demands the mango at any price. The mind executes this order by passing it to the feet (karma indriya) to take the man to the gardener. Ahankara buys the mango and eats it. The impressions of the mango remain in the mind and the vasana (tendency) is formed in the mind. The thought of enjoyment comes to the mind later on. And this, through memory (in the form of a subtle vasana) produces thought (sankalpa) and troubles the man again and again, to enjoy the mango.

This cycle: desire, thought, action, goes on from eternity to eternity. This brings bondage to man. When the vasana is repeated several times it becomes a strong passion. Then the man is a slave of the passion and indriyas (senses). A strong sense-hankering is called a trsna. The difference between desire and vasana is that the vasana is subtle and hidden in the subconscious mind, whereas the desire is gross. The pleasure derived from the enjoyment of the object brings attachment in this mind. Attachment is moha.

The man who is attached to objects, who is full of sense-vasanas, is tied to those objects. Escape becomes nearly impossible for him. Escape is possible only by destroying these knots, by knowledge of the witness, the director of this mental factory, who has kept up this show inside.

If you can clairvoyantly visualise the inner working of this mental factory you will be dumb-founded.

Wake up from this long slumber of ignorance.

Purify, meditate and attain wisdom

And roam about happily.

-So says Sivananda

MORE ON THE INNER INSTRUMENT

If you can clairvoyantly visualise the inner working of this mental factory you will see that, it is like a big telephone exchange, the messages come from diverse houses and firms into the central exchange. The operator plugs, connects and disconnects the various switches. So too, the mind plugs, connects and disconnects. When you want to see something the mind puts a plug into the other four senses (centres of hearing, smelling, taste and feeling). When you want to hear something, the mind plugs into the other four centres.

The mind functions at an unimaginable speed. There are numberless pigeon-holes in the subconscious mind where various sorts of things are recorded in perfect order. There they are classified, grouped, labelled with accurate precision.

One impression rises up as a thought-wave and comes to the surface of the mind. It tickles the jiva (individual) into action. You can also see various colours in thoughts-spiritual or holy thoughts are tinged with beautiful yellow colour. If there is thought of anger, dark red arrows shoot out from the mind. There is perfect order in the cosmos-the working is smooth and harmonious because there is the antaryami (inner controller) behind it, directing and guiding. In the mere presence of the inner ruler, the indwelling, interpenetrating presence, the mind and other inner faculties work without any friction.

There are different regions for sentiments, emotions, instincts, impulses. There are highlands and lowlands in the mind. There is the spiritual plane and there are the planes of the instinctive mind and the intellect. On the one side the will steps in to execute a certain strong desire of the mind. The other faculties, such as memory and the power of judgement and reflection stand behind, in a disciplined array, to help their master, the will. After the will has executed the order, imagination comes forward and speculates. Memory helps imagination.

Then the three gunas (qualities of nature), the various modes, and the thirteen evil vrttis (lust, anger, etc.), show their faces in different colours. They come to the scene, do their work and then retire for a rest. Words cannot describe how thrilling this scene is. Develop this clairvoyant astral sight through purification and concentration.

Do not forget the inner ruler who is awake even when the mental factory is closed down temporarily. Purify the mind. Practise concentration. Develop the power of the mind. Eventually you will merge with him.

SUBTLE DESIRES

The summum bonum of existence is the attainment of knowledge of the self, the realisation of the one homogeneous self. The knowledge of the self can only dawn when there is extinction of all the vasanas. Vasanas are subtle desires; they are gross in nature. Some philosophers define vasanas as tendencies or inclinations. Others say they are blind clinging to sensual objects, through intense longing or craving, without deliberation or thinking.

There are two kinds of vasanas-the pure and the impure. Pure vasanas liberate one from rebirth. Impure vasanas cause the mind to fluctuate, producing agitation in the mind and affinity for objects. If you are led by pure vasanas, you will soon attain the immortal seat of ineffable splendour. The vasanas generated by you in past lives will cling to you in future births. But if pure vasanas cling to you, you will easily attain knowledge of the self, and through this you will attain liberation. If the impure vasanas cling to you, you will experience pain and sorrow; you will get rebirth in this world, again and again.

The tree-mind has two seeds-one is vasana and the other is the fluctuation of prana (life). The seeds produce a big tree and the tree again produces seeds. So also the vibration of prana arises through vasana and the vasana operates through the movement of prana. If either perishes, both soon perish.

Egoism is the first asuric (demoniac) son of avidya (ignorance). Egoism has two asuric daughters-raga and vasana. There is an intimate connection between vasana and raga. Raga is attachment. Mamata (mine-ness) is due to raga. If you want to kill raga and vasana, you must annihilate egoism. If you want to kill egoism you must first kill avidya. Destroy avidya first-raga and vasana will die by themselves.

Mind is the cause for bondage and freedom. A mind filled with impure vasanas leads to bondage, whereas a mind destitute of vasanas tends to freedom. When mind is no-mind (through destruction of vasanas), then you become mindless. When you become mindless, intuition dawns and you are endowed with the eye of wisdom. You will enjoy indescribable peace.

WORLD OF OPPOSITES

One thing which is sweet and pleasant to you at one moment, produces the very reverse sensation in another moment. Who has not experienced this, in this world of opposites? Objects when longed for are pleasant but are bitter if not longed for. Hence vasanas (tendencies) are the cause of sensual pleasures. Pleasures will stop when you get satisfaction in them but if vasanas cease, the mind will perish and all else will be destroyed. Therefore annihilate these vasanas, the enemies of atma-jnana (self-knowledge) and immortality.

The mind clings to sensual objects. If the vasanas perish, the mind ceases thinking of objects and we attain the state of thoughtlessness. You will have a balanced mind despite adverse circumstances and many obstacles. Vasanas perish through dispassion, discrimination, control of the senses, enquiry of, "Who am I?" and meditation.

The impure vasanas persist and resist. They lurk in the corners of the mind in a mysterious manner. They play tricks on you. They can change their colours like a chameleon. Under pressure of yogic practices they get suppressed for some time but if you are not regular in your meditation, if vairagya (dispassion) wanes, they will attack with redoubled force. You must have a sharp intellect to detect their presence. Vasanas have arisen through enjoyment in many thousands of lives. They are very potent. They only perish through protracted spiritual practices-japa (repetition of God's name), kirtan (chanting), meditation, self-enquiry, discrimination, sama (control of mind), dama (control of senses), pratyahara (withdrawal of the mind) and pranayama (yoga breathing).

You have to transmute the impure vasanas into pure ones, through constant effort. Change the current of impure vasanas and allow them to run in the channel of pure vasanas. But pure vasanas are also fetters, golden fetters. You have to destroy the impure vasanas with the help of pure vasanas-then you have to abandon these pure ones also. Desire for liberation (moksa vasana) also must die eventually. Then only you become that.

Separate yourself from the objects. In the absence of objects the 'I' does not exist; and these objects do not exist in the absence of 'I'. Have the strong conviction that 'I' does not belong to the objects, that the objects do not belong to the 'I'. Identify yourself with the infinite 'I' (the Satchidananda Brahman)-and abandon the burden of the physical body. Become a videha mukta (liberated and bodiless)-all burdens will perish now.

MY TASK IS COMPLETE

My purpose is achieved. The entire circle of birth and death is over. I have realised the perfect bliss of the atman. I have known myself to be Brahman. I am free. I am perfect. I am independent. I enjoy bliss. I enjoy the bliss of the immortal soul.

I am brimful of perennial joy. A self-effulgent light burns in my heart. I have broken all illusory relationships. Now there is no husband, no wife. Now there is no cousin and no grandfather. It is all one homogeneous essence of bliss only. Now my task is complete.

I am free from doubt. I am free from delusion. Why should I study the scriptures? I rest in my own essential nature. Now, where is the necessity for meditation? I act like any other human being. I bathe, I sleep, I sing, I answer the calls of nature, I work, I write, I walk, I eat and I talk. And yet, I do not perform any action at all.

I am the witness of all these processes. I am identical with Brahman. These acts are not obstructions to me. All these dealings are perfectly harmless. I am not susceptible to viksepa (the disturbance of the equilibrium of the mind).

Where is the necessity for samadhi for me? Viksepa and samadhi are functions of the mind only. I have obliterated the mind. I am continuously experiencing the satisfaction which results from samadhi.

Let people have any opinion of me. Let them glorify me. Let them vilify me. It matters little. "Sivoham. Sivoham. Sivoham. Sivah Kevaloham."

I have risen above ignorance. I have risen above my knowledge of this seeming universe. It is not only escape from misery and grief. I enjoy the joy eternal, the joy unspeakable, the joy supreme, the joy unbounded.

What is this joy that I feel? Who shall measure it? I know nothing but joy limitless and unbounded.

GUIDE TO SADHAKAS

The first thing a spiritual aspirant has to acquire is mastery over the mind. Like a blind man-look at the objects. Like a deaf man-hear sounds. Do not allow the sense experiences to penetrate within. The mind gets fattened on account of its being fed by sense objects. Restrain the senses by the process of pratyahara (abstraction).

Why should you struggle to curb the mind? Its power is far greater than any other power, but it will become your slave if you surrender to the Lord and allow his divine power to work through you. The control of prana (life force) should be the natural and unfailing duty of all spiritually minded persons. It is the control of prana which paves the way for the non-cogitation of all the externals and the conquest of death.

Firmness of practice in the stainless non-dual principle, control of prana and the subjugation of the mind-these three are the paths to realise the meaning of moksa. Out of these three, one should be mastered thoroughly. Then the effects of all three will be obtained as all three are inseparably related to one another.

If the mind and prana cease to exist then thoughts will cease to arise-both of these are one only like the flower and its fragrance, or a seed and the oil in it. Prana and mind stand to one another in the relationship of supporter and supported. If either of them is slain then the other also will cease to exist. The destruction of both will confer moksa.

Spiritual life begins with repentance. Spiritual life begins with aspiration. Genuine aspiration is the pre-condition of success in leading a spiritual life. Aspiration is indeed the fruit of good actions of the past. Guard your spiritual aspirations very carefully. Increase them through viveka (wisdom), sadvicara (pure enquiry) and satsanga (holy company).

Devotion to God and guru, practice of discipline, regular meditation-these will quickly lead to self-realisation. Selfless work is for the purification of the mind. Self-realisation is brought about by discrimination, dispassion, determination and meditation. He who is faithful to truth and who diligently practises meditation, turning inwards in meditation, is put upon the ultimate path which leads to self-realisation.

NIRODHA

Mind and breath are like milk and water. Raja Yoga is control of the mind. He who wants to become a perfect yogi and wants to experience wonderful samadhi (superconscious state), must control mind and breath. He must continuously practise yoga and observe the rules. He must thoroughly overcome the five tatvas (elements).

Restraint of the mind (nirodha) leads to jnana. Nirodha is the culmination of yoga and sankhya (two paths to liberation). It is nirodha which underlies all sadhana (spiritual practice). Restraint of the mind is the essence of all worship. This is jnana (wisdom) and dhyana (meditation). The highest is attained by the restraint of the mind. The mind should be completely restrained from objects until it attains dissolution in the heart.

Atman or Brahman is your immortal self. It is the only blazing reality. Only if you know this Atman can you attain perfection. Perfection can be yours in this very life. Atman is to be recognised as your innermost being, through samadhi.

If you know the atman, which is the ultimate reality, which is perfection, then only your life becomes useful and a real existence. The knower of the atman, the inner perfection, crosses all sorrows and becomes free. If you do not know this atman then there is great loss for you.

Samadhi is not a mere emotional enthusiasm or an exhilaration of feeling, it is the direct, unique, intuitive experience of truth or absolute consciousness or the ultimate reality. It is beyond all feeling, throbbing and thrill. The aspirant rests in his centre now-the goal of his search-and realises the absolute freedom, independence and perfection.

The aspirant should have a burning desire to free himself from the fire of samsara (worldly life). Then only he will be able to enter into deep meditation and samadhi. The mind becomes that very Brahman when it is purified and brought into the samadhi state. In samadhi there is no perception of duality, the cause of fear. Avidya (ignorance) is entirely absent in this state.

To attain supreme bliss, you must have patience, perseverance, diligence, serenity, purity, one-pointed mind and burning aspiration. He who does not strive for realisation lives in vain-though he is a man in appearance, he is in fact a beast.

TRUE RENUNCIATION

The mind is the all in all. Its mastery leads to the renunciation of all. True renunciation is in the abnegation of the mind. It consists in renouncing all desires and egoism, not world existence. Through such mental abnegation you will be able to free yourself from pain. Then will come immortality in life-the enjoyment of the infinite delight of existence free from ego, founded on the oneness of all in Brahman.

Sanyasa (renunciation) is a mental state only. It is gerua (or colouring) of the heart and not of the cloth alone. He is a sanyasi who is free from passion and egoism, who possesses all the satvic qualities, even though he lives with the family and in the world. If you have a stainless mind you are a sanyasi (a renunciate), whether you live in a forest or in a city, whether you wear white cloth or an orange coloured robe, whether you shave your head or keep a long tuft of hair.

Shave the mind. This consists of getting rid of all attachment, passion, egoism, infatuation, lust, greed, anger, etc. Vedanta does not want you to renounce the world; it wants you to change your mental attitude. It wants you to give up this illusory feeling of 'I-ness' and 'mine-ness'.

Mind is a mass of objectified desires. Desire in the mind to eat, has manifested as the tongue, the teeth and the stomach. Desire in the mind to walk has manifested as legs and feet. Control the mind and you control the desires. Eyes can only see. Ears can only hear. Tongue can only taste. Nose can only smell. Skin can only touch. The five senses are blended in the mind and the mind directly sees, hears, smells, tastes and feels. It does this quite independent of the senses.

Understand clearly the aim of your life. Chalk out the line of work that is congenial to your aim. Then you should work hard to realise that ideal. Have your ideal ever before you and try, every second, to live up to it.

Develop a strong desire to remove carelessness and forgetfulness from your character. Have confidence in your own powers and faculties. Keep your mental poise in the world, without consideration of failure, without consideration of gain or loss, pleasure or pain.

Have the mind always rooted in God, amidst all the activities of life.

FASTING OF THE HEART

Form the habit of deep introspection. Good aspirants who enter into deep meditation also march forward in sleep. Taking food immoderately or at the wrong time will affect your system and render meditation difficult. Lead a life of self-restraint and back it up with meditation, japa (repetition of God's name), pranayama (yoga breathing) and asanas (postures). Fasting is beneficial. You can meditate well and seriously while fasting. The most significant fast is the fast of the heart-that is, renunciation of desires.

The mind may fall into a state of inactivity and the aspirant thinks he has reached the goal. This is a sad mistake. Divest yourself of anger, greed and attachment to sensual objects and their enjoyments. Be free from 'love' and 'hate' of others. Divest yourself from all affinities for objects. Follow proper diet, easy posture, purity of mind and body.

If the steps are not steady on the path, do more japa, intensify your vairagya (dispassion), sit in one place and meditate. Serve. Have unshakable faith in the Lord. Cling to the Lord's divine name. Surrender to the divine Lord. Pray to him sincerely. The mind will be powerless. Hand over charge of your body to the Lord and cease to think of it. The Lord is everywhere. He controls everything. He will protect you from all danger.

Rely on the Lord alone. If you put into practise one hundredth of what I say to you, you will surely attain God-realisation now and here.

A great emperor purchased a horse for ten thousand rupees. The horse was restless and no one was able to ride it. Then his son Sikandar said, "Beloved father, I can ride this horse". He sat on the horse and rode it in the direction of the sun. The horse galloped. The emperor was quite astonished. He said, "O Sikandar: How did you manage to ride this horse?" Sikandar replied, "The horse was afraid of his own shadow so I made him run towards the sun". Such is the restless horse-mind also. If you turn it towards atman (self) it will be peaceful. If you turn it towards maya (delusion) it will jump and dance.

TREACHEROUS MIND

Mind is very treacherous. It will hurl you down into the abyss of ignorance. It will say: "Pitva pitva punar pitva punar janma na vidyate". (Drink, drink again, there is no rebirth). It will say: "Give up sadhana (spiritual practice), you will not gain anything. There is no bliss beyond the senses. The world is real, there is nothing like sensual pleasure, enjoy it to your heart's content."

Hear not this voice of the mind. Swim against the mind-current. Mind is your bitter enemy. Disconnect your self from the mind-stand as its silent witness. Do not become one with the mind and the senses. Practise introspection and self-analysis. Thus will the mind gradually be tamed. It will become your obedient servant.

Sensual pleasures are nectar in the beginning but they are venom in the end. Here is a way to thin out the mind, a way to control it. If the mind says, "Eat eggs and meat", eat only spinach, fruits and milk. If the mind says, "Read novels and newspapers", read only the Gita, the Upanishads and practise karma yoga. If the mind says, "Gamble; practise vigil and do kirtan the whole night.

O truant mind: O mischievous imp: I am tired of giving you admonitions. You are like the shameless son-in-law who sits idly in the house of his father-in-law, eating and drinking, and bearing all the rebukes and broom beatings it is difficult to control the mind without the grace of the Lord. The prompter of thoughts alone can subjugate this wild mind. My prostrations and adorations to the prompter.

Listen O mind, to this piece of advice. Sink not in the mire of samsara (worldly life), in the perilous ocean of births and deaths. Mix thou not in mundane affairs. Eat not the fruits of pain and sorrow. Take not birth again and again. Wither not thyself in wicked deeds. Is not eternal bliss thy quest? Commune with the Lord of bliss now. Forget the body and its connections and rest peacefully in blissful joy. Abide in thy supreme abode. Now there will be an end of birth.

Desire not name, fame, prestige, position, title, honour, rank. Care not, O mind, for earthly affection, love and kind words, respect, nice clothes and dainty dishes, the company of damsels and their talk. Remain steadfast. Gaze on the Lord dwelling in the cave of thy heart-He who is thy refuge, thy solace, source and centre, the witness and the abode, the Lord and dissolution.

CURE FOR MENTAL DEFECTS

There are three defects of the mind. They are; impurity, tossing of the mind, and the veil of ignorance. The mind is tossed about among objects of love and hatred like a light feather in a stormy wind. It whirls far and wide among sensual objects, far away from the association of the wise. It is like a strolling city dog. This baneful mind whirls at the sight of immense wealth and it follows its mate, desire, and ever preys upon ignorant worldlings as it would on a carcass.

The mind is characterised by excessive fluctuation. It is fluctuating and confused. It rejoices in vain. It is intoxicated with egoism. Through this fluctuation the mind becomes a prey to fear. Remove these three dosa (defects).

To do this you should study the mind. Analyse the mind. Purify the mind. Dissolve the mind in God, by constant and intense thinking about God. Practise the sadhana (endeavour) of destruction of the mind. Rise above deceptions of the mind. Rise above the temptations of the mind. This is your duty. You are born for this only. All other duties are self-imposed, self-created through ignorance.

Mind is made pure through true, pure and virtuous actions, by constant association with the wise. Mantra, repeated with the right feeling, produces a wonderful effect on the mind. Right thinking, noble emotions, prayers, regular and strenuous meditation are the means to improve the mind.

As a result of purification of the mind, the mind becomes more sensitive. It is easily disturbed by sound or shock. It feels any pressure acutely. The aspirant must be sensitive and yet have the body and nerves completely under his control. He must get over this sensitivity.

O mind, you cannot be my friend now-I know your worth and nature. Till now I was deluded by your tricks. But now we move in diametrically opposite poles. You want fleeting sensual pleasure from objects. I want immortal bliss of the soul inside. You are ever restless and worried. I am peaceful and tranquil. You are full of passion, fear and attachment. I am dispassionate, fearless and unattached. You want woman, wealth, property. I am full of renunciation. We cannot agree at all. Therefore leave me quickly and quietly. Goodbye, friend.

DISCIPLINE OF THE MIND

You must have a pure mind if you want to realise the self. Unless the mind is free and it casts away all desires, cravings, worries, delusion, pride, lust, attachment, likes and dislikes, it cannot enter into the domain of supreme peace and unalloyed felicity, the immortal abode.

A glutton or a sensualist, a dullard or a lazy man, cannot practise meditation. He who has controlled the tongue and other organs, who has an acute acumen, who eats, drinks and sleeps in moderation, who has destroyed selfishness, lust, greed and anger, can practise meditation and attain success in samadhi (superconsciousness).

You cannot enjoy peace of mind, you cannot practise meditation if there is viksepa in your mind. Viksepa is tossing of mind. Viksepa is rajas (passion); viksepa and desires co-exist in the mind. If you really want to destroy viksepa, you must destroy all mundane cravings through dispassion and self-surrender to the Lord.

If you apply fire to green wood, it will not burn; if you apply fire to a piece of dried wood, it will at once catch fire and burn. Even so, those who have not purified their minds will not be able to start the fire of meditation. They will be sleeping or dreaming building castles in the air-when they sit for meditation.

But those who have removed the impurities of the mind by japa (repetition of God's name), service, charity, pranayama (yoga breathing) etc., will enter into deep meditation as soon as they sit for meditation. The pure ripe mind will at once burn with the fire of meditation.

Clarify your idea again and again. Think clearly. Have deep concentration and right thinking. Introspect in solitude. Purify your thoughts. Still the thoughts. Silence the bubbling mind. Allow one thought-wave only to rise from the mind and settle down calmly. Then allow another thought to enter. Drive off all extraneous thoughts that have nothing to do with the subject matter on hand. An efficient control over thoughts, through long practice, is a great help in meditation.

Watch every thought very carefully. Shut out all useless thoughts from the mind. Your life must tally with your meditation. You keep up your meditation during work also. Do not give new strength to evil thoughts by constantly thinking. Restrain them. Substitute sublime thoughts.

TRAINING OF THE MIND

If a pebble in our shoe torments us, we expel it. Once the matter is understood, it is just as easy to expel an intruding and obnoxious thought from the mind. Thoughts are the sources of all actions-they are real karma, real action. If, right at the beginning, you can root out all evil thoughts, you will not do any evil actions. You will be free from misery and anxiety.

Watch the thoughts with vigilance. Once the tossing of the mind vanishes, the mind will be very calm and you will get good meditation. Free yourself from the clutches of the mind, and liberation will come by itself. Those who have even a little control over their thoughts and speech will have a calm, serene, beautiful face, a sweet voice and brilliant, lustrous eyes.

Conserve all mental energy. Use it for spiritual purposes. Do not store useless information in your brain. Learn to unmind the mind. Then only you can fill the mind with divine thoughts. As all the dissipated mental rays are collected you will gain new mental strength. Useless thoughts impede your spiritual growth; obnoxious thoughts are stumbling blocks to spiritual advancement.

In untrained persons four or five kinds of thoughts occupy the mind at one time. These may be thoughts of the household, of business, of the office, of the body and so on. If you watch carefully you will see that many thoughts are inconsistent and that the mind wanders aimlessly.

Entertain only thoughts that are useful and helpful. These are the stepping stones to all spiritual progress. Every thought must be of a constructive nature; it must be positive and definite. Mental images must be well-defined. Every thought must bring peace and comfort to others and never bring pain or unhappiness. Then, you are a blessed soul on earth.

Always watch your mind. Be vigilant. Be alert. Do not allow waves of irritability, jealousy, anger, hatred and lust to arise in the mind. These are the enemies of meditation, peace and wisdom. Suppress them at once by entertaining sublime thoughts. Evil thoughts which have already arisen may be destroyed by originating and maintaining good thoughts, by repeating any mantra, by doing any good actions, by abstracting the mind and by enquiring, "Who am I?" or by will-force.

CONSEQUENCES OF ANGER

A terrible fit of anger shatters the physical nervous system. It produces a lasting impression on the inner astral body. Although the effects of a fit of anger may seem to subside in a short time, the vibration or wave, continues to exist for days in the astral body. A slight unpleasant feeling that lasts in the mind for five minutes, may produce a deep inflammation of the astral body. It may take several weeks or months even for this ulcer to heal.

Now, have you realised the disastrous consequences of anger? Do not be victims of anger. Control it by love, mercy, sympathy, vicara (enquiry) and consideration for others. Even slight annoyance, or irritability, affects the mind and the astral body.

Aspirants should not allow these vrttis (thought-waves) to manifest in the mind-lake, as they may burst out as big waves of anger at any moment, if you are careless or weak. There should not be the least disturbance in the mind-lake it should be perfectly calm and serene. Then only you will find meditation possible.

It is difficult to control anger. Anger is a manifestation of sakti (energy). At first, try to reduce its force. and its frequency of duration. Endeavour to attenuate or thin out this formidable modification of the mind.

Do not allow this modification to assume the form of a big wave on the surface of the conscious mind. Nip it in the bud when it is in the form of irritability. Divert the mind. Entertain divine thoughts. Do vigorous japa (repetition of God's name) and kirtan (chanting). Repeat some prayers or slokas (verses) from the scriptures.

Develop the opposite, divine qualities. Develop patience, love, forgiveness-anger will die by itself, gradually. Blessed are those high-souled people who can control their anger by pure, strong will and intellect.

Be serene. Serenity is like a rock. Waves may dash on it but they cannot affect it. Waves of irritation may break on this rock of serenity but they cannot affect it. Meditate daily on the ever-tranquil atman (self). You will attain this sublime virtue of serenity gradually.

DEPRESSION AND DEVOTION

Every aspirant in the spiritual path becomes a victim to the mood of depression in the beginning. You have to overcome this mood through discrimination, reflection, singing God's name, prayer, etc. This mood is like a passing cloud. It will pass off if you are vigilant. Do not mistake emotion for devotion.

Whenever you get into a mood of depression, sing God's name vigorously; sitting alone in your room, sing with a melting heart. You may sing silently if you wish. This is an easy way to drive away this undesirable mood.

Try to control all wild outbursts of weeping. This is a weakness, a negative state. But do allow the pearl drops of divine love or ecstasy to trickle down your face occasionally, when you are in a profoundly prayerful or meditative mood.

Shed the tears of pure, divine love when you are alone, when you are in communion with the Lord. Do not weep in the presence of others. The rare pearl-drops of divine love are the outcome of the melting of the heart by the fire of devotion and the fire of painful separation from the Lord.

Sometimes a man feigns to be a devotee. He sheds false tears to make his neighbours think he is a great devotee. On account of sympathetic action, his neighbours also begin to weep-but there will not be one iota of devotion in their hearts.

Devotion is a very rare gift from God. Weeping itself is not a criterion by which to judge the devotional nature of a man or a woman. Do not mistake the crocodile tears of a hypocrite bhakta (devotee) for the genuine pearl drops of divine love which inspire and elevate bystanders. One may not weep outwardly and yet he may be a genuine, silent devotee.

Identify yourself with the emotionless state or Brahman, and rest peacefully for ever.

Satvic (peaceful) emotion is quiet. Rajasic (passionate) emotion is terrible. Tamasic (dull) emotion is confused. Rajasic and tamasic emotions are of a turbid nature and therefore cannot receive a reflection of the blissful nature of atman. Rajasic and tamasic emotions present a reflection of intelligence but not of bliss. Satvic emotions present a reflection of both blissfulness and intelligence.

BRAVE ALL TRIALS

Trials, difficulties, troubles and sufferings are necessary for your purification and to strengthen your will and power of endurance. Face them bravely and come out triumphantly. Press on. Strive on with all your will; only then is the grace of God bestowed. God helps those who help themselves. If bad thoughts enter your mind, simply ignore them. Offer a prayer to the Lord and substitute divine thoughts by studying the sacred books. The spiritual fire should be generated day after day. Hold fast to the ideal. Keep the flame of aspiration ever bright. Scorn mundane delights and strife. Dedicate your life to God. Meditate. Scale the spirit's steepest height and reach the peak of eternal wisdom and bliss divine. Nothing is able to daunt the firm and resolute aspirant or turn him from a course which he considers to be right, or which he holds to be his duty. Be brave and courageous. You must pass with one breath over the mountain of difficulties. The atman cannot be attained by a life of weakness and error.

You have infinite strength within you. Be strong. Look within. Meditate. Tap the source. Have an indomitable will, backed by an abiding faith. You are bound to succeed in everything. God is the light of lights. He is knowledge. He is the knower. God is the same from age to age. God never changes; he is ageless. God has no opposite. God is truth, beauty, goodness. God has no religion; He is the source of all religion. God is one. God is peace. God is universal harmony. God is love and law. As a lamp cannot burn without oil, so man cannot live without God. Creation reveals that God is dharma (righteousness). God is the bestower of grace which is boundless and inexhaustible.


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