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Glossary

A
ABHANGA: A devotional poetic composition.­
ABHASA: Reflection.
ABHAYAM: Fearless.
ABHIMANA: Egoism, identification with the body.
ABHYASA: Spiritual practice.
ACHARYA: Teacher; Preceptor.
ACHYUTA: Immutable-Lord Vishnu.
ADESA: Command.
ADHIKARI: A qualified person, Fit aspirant (Uttama: Good, Madhyama: medium, Adhama: inferior)
ADHISHTHANA: Substratum, support.
ADHYASA: Mutual identification or superimposition.
ADHYASA: Superimposition or false attribution of properties of one thing on another thing.
ADHYATMIC: Spiritual.
ADHYAYANA: Study.
ADRISYA: Unperceived by the eye.
ADVAITA: Non-dual; Non-duality.
AGANDHA: Without smell.
AGASTYA MUNI: Name of a sage.
AGNI: Fire.
AGRAHYA: Unknowable.
AHAM BRAHMA ASMI: ‘I am Brahman.'
AHAM: ‘I' or ego.
AHAMGRAHA: A kind of meditation in which the aspirant identifies himself with Brahman.
AHAMKARA: Ego; Pure Ego.
AHIMSA: Non-injury in thought, Non-violence, word and deed. Click here for a more detailed explanation.
AISVARYA: Divine attributes like wisdom, renunciation, power, etc.
AISVARYA: Material or spiritual wealth
AITAREYA: Name of an Upanishad.
AJAPA: Repetition of "Soham" Mantra.
AJARAM: Without old age.
AJNA: Chakra: Cavernous plexus
AJNA: Spiritual centre between the two eyebrows.
AJNANA: Ignorance.
AKASA: Ether, space, sky
AKHANDA: Indivisible.
AKHOW: Name of a sage.
ALABDHABHUMIKATVA: The feeling that it is impossible to see reality.
ALAMBANA: Support.
ALASYA: Lethargy, inertia, Laziness.
ALPA: Little; Small.
AMALAKA: The Indian gooseberry.
AMANA: Mindless; Thoughtless.
AMARA-PURUSHA: Immortal being.
AMATRA: Having no measure; Transcendental.
AMRITAM: Immortal.
AMRITATVA: Immortality.
ANADI: Beginningless.
ANAHATA CHAKRA: One of the Yogic centres (heart).
ANAHATA CHAKRA-Cardiac plexus, lotus of the heart.
ANAHATA SOUND-Mystical inner sound.
ANAHATA: Mystic sound heard by Yogis.
ANANDA: Bliss, happiness, joy.
ANANDA-GHANA: Cloud of bliss.
ANANDAGHANA: Mass of Bliss.
ANANDAMAYA: Full of great happiness.
ANANDA-SVARUPA: Of the form of bliss.
ANANTA: Endless.
ANANTAM: Infinity.
ANANTANAG: Name of a place.
ANARTHA: Evil; Wrong; Calamity.
ANATMA: Not-Self.
ANGA: Subordinate step, A limb, A part.
ANGA-Limb, step.
ANIMA: Subtlety, reducing body in size
ANTAHKARANA: Internal instrument such as mind, intellect,  ego and the subconscious mind.
ANTAHKARANA-The fourfold internal organs, Manas, Buddhi, Chitta and Ahamkara.
ANTARANGA: Internal.
ANTARATMAN: Inner Self.
ANTARJYOTIS: Inner light.
ANTARMUKHA: Introspective; Gaze turned inwards.
ANTARYAMIN: Inner ruler, Inner witness.
ANUBHAVA: Experience.
APANA VAYU: Down-going breath; The nerve-current which governs abdominal region and does excretory function.
APANA: Vital energy functioning in excretion
APAROKSHA: Immediate.
APAS: Water
APRANA: Without Prana (life-breath).
APTA: Realized.
APTA-KAMA: One whose desires have been fulfilled; a realised sage.
ARAMBHA: A state reached in Pranayama
ARANI: A sacrificial wood.
ARCHANA: Offering of flowers etc., at the time of worship.
ARHATA: A perfected Soul.
ARJAVA: Straightforwardness.
ARJUNA: Name of a great devotee of Krishna, who was taught the Gita; one of the Pandava brothers.
ARTHA: Wealth.
ARUDHA: Ascended; in a state of culmination; established.
ARUNDHATI: Name of a star.
ARUPA: Formless.
ASABDA: Soundless.
ASAMPRAJNATA: Highest superconscious state where the mind is completely annihilated and Reality experienced.
ASANA JAYA: Mastery over Asana.
ASANA: A bodily pose or posture.
ASANGOHAM: ‘I am unassociated'; a formula for meditation.
ASHRAM: A hermitage; monastery.
ASHTANGA: Eight limbs (of Patanjali's Raja Yoga)
ASHTANGA: Eight limbs. Click here for a discourse on Raja Yoga / Ashtanga Yoga.
ASMITA: Pure ego; self-consciousness.
ASPARSA: Touchless.
ASTIKA: Believer of God or the Vedas
ASURA: Demon, evil tendency in man
ASURA: Demon.
ASURI: Devilish
ASURIC: Demoniacal.
ASURIC-Devilish.
ASUYA: Jealousy.
ASVATTHA: The sacred peepal tree.
ASVINI MUDRA: A kind of Hatha Yoga practice.
ATHARVANA: Name of a Veda; name of a sage.
ATINDRIYA: Beyond the reach of the senses.
ATMADROHA: Enmity with the Self.
ATMAHANA: Killer of the Self.
ATMA-JNANA: Knowledge of the Self.
ATMAN: Divine soul in man, the Supreme Self
ATMAN: The Self.
ATMA-SVARUP: The essential nature of the Self.
ATMIC-TRIVENI: The Soul compared to Triveni (Triveni is a sacred confluence of three rivers).
ATRI: Name of a sage.
AUM: Sacred monosyllable; symbol of Brahman.
AUROBINDO: Name of the famous sage of Pondicherry.
AVADHANA: Attention.
AVADHANI: Attentive, concentrated
AVADHUTA GITA: A book containing  the teachings of sage Dattatreya.
AVADHUTA: A naked sage.
AVARANA: Veil of ignorance.
AVASTHA: State
AVATARA: Incarnation of God.
AVIDYA: Ignorance.
AVIRATI: Non-dispassion; sensual indulgence.
AVYAKTA: Unmanifest-three Gunas (qualities born of nature) in a state of equilibrium.
AVYAYA: Inexhaustible.
AYURVEDA: The ancient Indian science of medicine.
B
BADARAYANA: Name of the author of the Brahma-Sutras.
BAHIRANGA: External.
BAHIRMUKHA: Outgoing; inclined towards outward consciousness.
BALA KRISHNA: Child Krishna.
BALA: Strength.
BALI: Name of a demon king who attained wisdom.
BANDHA: A kind of Hatha Yoga practice, A lock in Yogic posture
BANDHA: BANDHU: Relative, one connected by relation
BENARES: A holy pilgrimage centre of Hindus, now called Varanasi in Uttar Pradesh, India.
BHAGA-TYAGA: A logical method adopted to establish the identity of Jiva (soul) and Isvara (God) by partly abandoning their surface attributes.
BHAGAVAD-GITA: A scripture containing Lord Krishna's teachings.
BHAGAVATA: Name of a Purana (sacred work dealing with the doctrines of creation, etc.)
BHAJAN: Devotional song.
BHAKTA: Devotee of God
BHAKTI: Devotion
BHANJANA: Breaking.
BHARATAVARSHA: India.
BHARTRIHARI: Name of a sage.
BHASTRIKA: Bellows (a kind of Pranayama)
BHATI: To shine
BHAVA SAMADHI: Superconscious state attained by intense divine emotions.
BHAVA(NA): Feeling; mental attitude.
BHAVA: (Devotional) attitude
BHAVANA-Feeling.
BHAYANAKA-SABDA: A fear inducing sound.
BHEDA: Difference, splitting
BHEDANA: Piercing.
BHIKSHA: Alms.
BHIMA: Name of a Pandava (Arjuna's brother).
BHOGI: Enjoyer.
BHRANTI-DARSANA: Mistaken notion.
BHRUKUTI-The space between the eyebrows.
BHRUMADHYA DRISHTI-Gazing at the Bhrukuti.
BHRUMADHYA: Between the two eyebrows.
BHUJANGASANA: Cobra pose of Hatha Yoga.
BHUMA: The Unconditioned, the Great Infinite, Brahman, Unconditioned Bliss.
BHUMA: BHUMIKA: Stage.
BHUTA-GANAS; BHUTAS: Elementals.
BHUTA-LOKA: The world of elements.
BHUTA-SIDDHI: A psychic power by which mastery is gained over the elements.
BIJA: Seed, source
BIJAKSHARA: Seed: letter containing latent power of Mantra
BIMBA: A kind of fruit.
BINDU: Point which denotes ‘n' or ‘m' vowel sounds in Sanskrit.
BODHISATTVA: A being who, having developed the Awakening Mind (a mind infused with the aspiration to attain the state of Buddhahood), devotes his life to the task of achieving Buddhahood for the sake of all sentient beings.
BRAHMA: Creator.
BRAHMACHARI: Celibate, student of scriptures
BRAHMACHARYA: Practice of celibacy. Purity in thought, word and deed. Click here for a discourse on Brahmacharya.
BRAHMACHARYA-Celibacy.
BRAHMA-CHINTANA: Constant meditation on Brahman.
BRAHMA-JNANA: Direct Knowledge of Brahman.
BRAHMAKARA VRITTI: The sole ultimate thought of Brahman to the exclusion of all other thoughts.
BRAHMA-LOKA: The world of Brahma.
BRAHMAMUHURTA: Period from 4 a.m. to 6 a.m.
BRAHMAN: Absolute.
BRAHMAN: The Absolute Reality; God.
BRAHMANDA: Macrocosm, Brahma's egg
BRAHMA-NISHTHA: One who is established in the Knowledge of Brahman.
BRAHMARANDHRA: Head fontanelle at the top of head
BRAHMASAMSTHA: Grounded in Brahman.
BRAHMA-SROTRI: One who has knowledge of the Vedas and the Upanishads.
BRAHMA-SUTRAS: Classical Vedantic scripture.
BRAHMA-TEJAS: Spiritual halo.
BRAHMAVARCHAS: Magnetic Brahmic aura.
BRAHMAVID: A knower of Brahman.
BRAHMA-VIDYA: The science of Brahman, knowledge of Brahman, learning pertaining to Brahman or the Absolute Reality. Click here for an essay on Brahma Vidya.
BRIHADARANYAKA: Name of an Upanishad.
BUDDHA: Name of Siddhartha Gautama after he attained illumination; the Founder of Buddhism.
BUDDHA: One who is totally purified from all defilements and who has realized all that can be known.
BUDDHI: Intellect.
BUDDHI:Intellect,understanding,reason
BUTI: Herb.
C
CHAITANYA: Pure Consciousness.
CHAKRA: Spinning wheel.
CHAKRA: Wheel, plexus
CHAKRA-Plexus.
CHAKRAS: Centres of energy in the human system.
CHAKSHUS: Eye.
CHANCHALA: Unsteady; fickle.
CHANDIPATHA: Hymns in the praise of Goddess Chandi.
CHANDOGYA: Name of an Upanishad.
CHARANAMRITA: Nectar of the feet; water sanctified by the feet of a holy man.
CHARU: Boiled milk and rice
CHELA: Disciple.
CHESHMASHAI: Name of a place in India.
CHHANDOGYA: Name of an Upanishad.
CHIDAKASA: The ether of Pure Consciouseness; Unbounded Intelligence; Brahman.
CHINI-CHINI: Sound of tinklets.
CHINMATRA: Consciousness alone.
CHINTA: Sorrow; worry.
CHINTAMANI: Wish-yielding gem.
CHINTANA: Thinking; reflecting.
CHIRANJIVI: One who has gained eternal life.
CHIT: Consciousness
CHITTA: Mind-stuff; subconscious mind.
D
DAIVI SAMPAT-Divine qualities.
DAIVI: Divine
DAIVIC: Divine.
DAMA: Control of outer senses
DAMA: Control of senses.
DAMARU: A sort of small drum in the hand of Lord Siva.
DARJEELING: Name of a place in Bengal, India.
DARSANA: Vision.
DATTATREYA: An ancient sage.
DAYA: Mercy.
DEHA ADHYASA-Attachment to the body.
DEHA: Body.
DEVA(TA): Deity
DEVAS: Celestial beings.
DEVAS: Gods.
DEVI: Goddess.
DHAIRYA: Heroism, valour
DHANURASANA: Bow pose of Hatha Yoga.
DHARANA-Concentration.
DHARMA: Duty, virtue, righteous way of living
DHARMA: Righteous way of living as enjoined by the sacred scriptures, virtue.
DHARMAS: Characteristics.
DHRITI: Firmness; (spiritual) patience.
DHVANI: Sound.
DHYANA: Deep meditation
DHYANABINDU UPANISHAD: Name of an Upanishad.
DHYATA: Meditator.
DHYEYA: Object of meditation.
DIG-VIJAYA: Conquest of the quarters (world) either military or cultural.
DINACHARYA: Daily activity.
DIRGHA: Prolonged.
DIVYA: Divine.
DIVYA-DRISHTI: Divine perception.
DRIDHA SUSHUPTI: Deep sleep.
DRIDHATA:Firmness
DRIK: Seer.
DRISHTI: Seeing.
DRISYA: Seen.
DRONA, DRONACHARYA: Teacher of the Pandavas and Kauravas.
DURBAR: Court of a king.
DVAITA: Dualism.
DVARAKA: Name of a place in India.
DVESHA: Repulsion; hatred; dislike.
E
EKA: One.
EKADASI: Eleventh day of the Hindu lunar fortnight.
EKAGRA: One-pointed.
EKAGRATA: One-pointedness of mind.
EKAGRATA-One-pointedness of mind, concentration.
EKANATH: Name of a saint.
EKARASA: Homogeneous.
EKARUPA: Uniform.
F
FAKIRS: Muslim and Sufi saints.
G
GADA: Mace.
GANDHA: Fragrance.
GANDHA: Smell.
GANDHARVA: Being of the psychic plane.
GANESA: Name of the deity of the remover of obstacles; first-worshipped god.
GANGA: River Ganges.
GARUDA: A bird.
GAUDAPADA: Name of a sage.
GAURANGA: Name of a saint.
GAYATRI: A very sacred Mantra in the Vedas
GAYATRI: One of the most sacred Vedic Mantras; goddess.
GHANA: Mass.
GHATA: A state reached in Pranayama
GHRINA: Hatred.
GITA: Renowned sacred text "Bhagavad-Gita."
GOPIS: Girl devotees of Lord Krishna.
GRANTHI: Knot (of nerves or psychic energy)
GRIHASTHA: Householder.
GRIHASTHA:Householder
GUDA: Anus.
GUHA: Cave.
GUJARAT: Name of a state in India.
GULKAND: A confection of roses.
GULMA-Chronic gastritis.
GUNA: Quality born of nature.
GUNATITA: Beyond the Gunas (quality of nature).
GURU: Teacher; preceptor.
H
HAMSA: Swan, Divine Self
HANUMAN: A monkey devotee of Lord Rama.
HARI: Lord Vishnu.
HARIJANS: The untouchable class.
HARSHA: Exhileration; joy.
HATHA YOGI: One who practises Hatha Yoga or one who is adept in it.
HAVAN: Sacred oblations.
HIRANYAGARBHA: Cosmic intelligence; the supreme lord of the universe; cosmic mind.
HRIDAYA GRANTHI-Heart-knot of ignorance.
HRIDAYA: Heart.
HUMOURS-Wind, bile and phlegm.
I
IDA: Psychic nerve: current flowing through the left nostril lunar
IDAM: This.
INDRA: The Lord of gods; the ruler of heaven.
INDRIYA: Sense of perception whether physical (Karma Indriya) or internal current (Jnana Indriya)
INDRIYAS-Sense-organs.
IRSHYA: Jealousy.
ISA: Name of an Upanishad.
ISHTA MANTRA: The Mantra of the chosen or tutelary deity.
ISHTA: Object of desire, chosen ideal
ISHTA-DEVATA: Chosen or tutelary deity.
ISHVARA: Lord; God.
J
JADA: Inert; insentient.
JADA: Insentient.
JAGAI: Name of a saint.
JAGAT: World.
JAGRAT: Waking state.
JALODARA-Dropsy.
JANAKA: Name of a royal sage.
JANMASHTAMI: Lord Krishna's birthday.
JAPA-Repetition of Mantra or God's name.
JATA: Matted hair.
JATHARAGNI-Digestive fire.
JIVA: Individual Soul.
JIVANMUKTA: One who is liberated in this life.
JIVANMUKTI: Liberation in this life.
JIVANMUKTI: Liberation while still in body, the state of Jnana or Knowledge, Wisdom of Brahman
JIVATMAN: Individual soul
JNANA: Knowledge; wisdom.
JNANADEVA: Name of a Maharashtra saint.
JNANA-INDRIYAS: Organs of knowledge or perception.
JNANAMUDRA: Symbol of wisdom shown in hands.
JNANI: (Pronounced Nyani) A wise person.
JNANINS: The wise.
JYOTIS-Illumination.
K
KABIR: Name of a saint.
KAILASA: Mount Kailasa.
KAIVALYA: Emancipation; state of absolute independence.
KALA: Ray, part, aspect
KALI YUGA: Age of Kali-the dark evil present age.
KALPAS: Medicines intended for longevity and health.
KALYANA: Auspicious.
KAMA: Lust; desire.
KAMALA: Lotus
KAMALASANA: Lotus pose.
KAMANDALU: A vessel carried by Hindu monks for keeping water.
KAPALA: Skull
KAPILA MUNI: Founder of Sankhya system of philosophy.
KARANA: Causal.
KARMA: Action (Sanchita: accumulated; Prarabdha: to be worked out in this life; Agami: being freshly formed)
KARMA: Actions operating through the law of cause and effect. Click here for a discourse on Karma Yoga.
KARMA-INDRIYAS: Organs of action - tongue, hands, feet, genital organ and anus.
KARMA-KANDI: One who observes strictly the duties ordained in the scriptures.
KARMASRAYA: Receptacle of actions.
KARTAVYA: Duty.
KARUNA: Compassion
KARUNA: Mercy
KARYA: Effect.
KASHAYA: Hidden desires.
KASHMIR: Name of a state in India.
KASHTHA MAUNA: Observing silence in which thoughts are  not communicated to others even in writing or by signs.
KATHA: Name of an Upanishad.
KAUPIN: Loincloth.
KAUSTUBHA: Name of a gem worn by Lord Vishnu on His breast.
KAVYAS: Poems.
KAYAKALPA: Medical treatment for increasing longevity.
KEVALA ASTI: Pure existence alone.
KEVALA KUMBHAKA: Cessation of breath spontaneously
KEVALA: Alone.
KEVALOHAM: "I am Absolute."
KHADDAR; KHADI: Hand-woven cloth.
KHECHARI MUDRA: A kind of Hatha-Yogic practice.
KHECHARI MUDRA: Applying elongated tongue to the posterior palate in Hatha Yoga
KIRTAN: Singing devotional songs.
KLESA: Affliction.
KORAN: Holy scripture of the Muslims.
KOSA: A sheath enclosing the Soul.
KRISHNA: Incarnation of Lord Vishnu; teacher of the Gita.
KRITA-KRITYA: One who has done everything; a liberated sage.
KRIYA: A type of exercise in Hatha Yoga.
KRIYA: Action
KRODHA: Anger.
KSHAMA: Forgiveness.
KSHETRA: Place where food is distributed to Sannyasins.
KSHIPTA: Wandering state of mind.
KULA KUNDALINI: The primordial cosmic energy located in the individual.
KUMBHAKA: Period between incoming and outgoing breath
KUMBHAKA-Retention of breath.
KUMBHAKARNA: Brother of the demon king Ravana -he used to sleep for six months.
KUNDA: A kind of jasmine flower.
KUNDALINI: Serpent: power coiled up at the Muladhara Chakra
KUNDALINI: The primordial cosmic energy located in the individual.
KUTASTHA: Immutable; Brhaman.
KUTIR: A small cottage; hut.
KUTIR: Living quarters (of a Sadhaka)
L
LAGHU SIDDHANTA KAUMUDI: A Sanskrit grammar text.
LAKSHANA: Definition.
LAKSHMANA: Brother of Lord Rama.
LAKSHYA: Goal; target; point of concentration.
LANGOTI-Loin Cloth.
LANKA: Ceylon.
LAYA: Merging; dissolution.
LILA: Play; sport.
LINGA SARIRA: Subtle body
LINGA-SARIRA: The subtle body, the astral body.
LOBHA: Greed.
LOKASANGRAHA: Solidarity of the world.
M
MADHAI: Name of a saint.
MADHURA: Sweet.
MADHYAMA: Middle.
MADHYAMA: Pranayama with 32 Matras
MAHA: Great.
MAHABHARATA: A Hindu epic.
MAHANT: Great sage
MAHAPURUSHA: A great soul.
MAHARISHI: Great sage
MAHASAMADHI: The departure of a Self-realized saint from his mortal coil.
MAHATMA: Great soul
MAHAVAKYAS: Great sentences of the Upanishads.
MAHIMA: Siddhi of making oneself huge
MAITRI: Friendship.
MAKARA KUNDALA: Earring of Lord Vishnu.
MALA: Impurities like lust, greed, anger, etc.
MAMATA: Mineness; attachment.
MANANA: Reflection.
MANAS: Mind
MANASIKA: Mental.
MANDUKYA: An Upanishad.
MANIKARNIKA: A Ganga-bank in Kasi.
MANIPURA: A Yogic centre situated in the region of the navel.
MANMANAH: With mind fixed on Me (the Lord).
MANONASA: Destruction of mind.
MANORAJYA: Building castles in the air.
MANSOOR: Name of a Sufi sage.
MANTRA: Sacred syllable or word, or set of words through the repetition and reflection of which one attains perfection.
MANU: A divine sage regarded as the father of the human race.
MATPARAH: Devoted to Me (the Lord).
MATRA: A second, time: measure
MATRAS: Units; syllables.
MATSARYA: Jealousy.
MATSYASANA: The fish-pose of Hatha Yoga.
MATSYENDRANATH: Name of a Yogi.
MAUNA: Vow of silence.
MAYA: The illusive power of Brahman.
MERU DANDA-Spinal column.
MISRI-Sugar-candy.
MITAHARA: Moderate diet
MITAHARA: Moderate diet.
MITAHARA-Moderation in diet.
MITHYA: False.
MOHA: Infatuation.
MOKSHA: Liberation, release
MOKSHA-Liberation, salvation.
MOUNA: Vow of silence.
MOUNI: One who observes silence.
MRIDANGA: A kind of drum.
MRIDU: Soft.
MUDHA: Dull and forgetful state of mind.
MUDITA: Cheerfulness.
MUDRA: Certain class of Hatha Yogic exercises.
MUDRA: Symbolic hand: position
MUKTA: Liberated.
MUKTI: Liberation.
MUKTI-Final emancipation.
MULA BANDHA: A Hatha Yogic exercise.
MULA-AJNANA: Primal ignorance which contains all potentialities.
MULADHARA: Yogic centre situated in the base of the spine.
MUMUKSHU: One who aspires after moksha or liberation.
MUMUKSHUTVA: Aspiration for God-realisation.
MUMUKSHUTVA: Intense longing for liberation
MUNI: An ascetic.
MUNI: Saint.
MURTI: Idol.
MURTI: Image or picture.
MURTI-UPASANA: Worship of image.
MUSSOORIE: A hill-station in India.
N
NABHI-Navel.
NADA: Mystic sound.
NADI SUDDHI-Purification of Nadis.
NADI: Astral tube carrying Prana
NADI: Nerve; psychic current.
NADIS-Nerves.
NADI-SUDDHI: Purification of the nerves.
NAKULA: A Pandava-younger brother of Arjuna.
NAMA-RUPA: Name and form.
NAMO: Salutation.
NANAK: Name of a saint whose last successor founded Sikhism.
NARAYANAYA: To Lord Narayana.
NASIKAGRA DRISHTI-Gazing at the tip of the nose.
NASIKAGRA: The tip of the nose.
NAULI: A Hatha Yogic exercise.
NAULI: Abdominal churning exercise
NAVAVIDHA: Nine types.
NETI NETI: Not this, not this.
NIDIDHYASANA: Profound and deep meditation.
NIDIDHYASANA-Profound meditation.
NIDRA: Sleep.
NIRAKARA: Formless.
NIRBIJA: Seedless.
NIRDVANDVA: Beyond the pairs of opposites such as pleasure and pain.
NIRGUNA: Without attributes.
NIRGUNO-GUNI: Brahman who possesses transcendental qualities.
NIRODHA: Control or restraint.
NIRODHA: Restraint.
NIRUDDHA: Controlled.
NIRVANA: Liberation; final emancipation.
NIRVANA: Liberation; final emancipation.
NIRVICHARA SAMADHI: Superconscious state where there   is no mind or Triputi.
NIRVIKALPA: Without modification of the mind
NIRVIKALPA-SAMADHI: Superconscious state where there is no modification of the mind or Triputi.
NIRVISHAYA: Without object.
NISHKAMA KARMA-Action without any expectation of fruits.
NISHKAMA: Selfless, unselfish
NISHPATTI: Consummation, ratio
NISHTHA: Steadfastness.
NISSANKALPA: Free from thoughts and imaginations.
NITYA: Eternal.
NITYA-SIDDHA: A liberated soul of marvellous powers who is ever present on the astral plane.
NIVRITTI MARGA: The path of renunciation.
NIVRITTI: Renunciation.
NIYAMA: The second step in Raja Yoga; observance - purity, contentment, austerities, etc.
NIYAMA-The second step of Raja Yoga, observance. Internal and external purification, contentment, austerity, study, worship of God, etc.
O
OJAS: Spiritual energy.
OJAS-SAKTI-Seminal energy.
OM (KARA): The sacred syllable symbolising Brahman.
OM: The sacred monosyllable which symbolizes Brahman.
OORDHVARETA: A Yogi who has stored up the seminal energy in the brain after sublimating the same into spiritual energy.
OOTY: A hill-station in India.
P
PADA SEVANA: Service of the feet of the Lord.
PADAM ANAMAYA: Painless seat of Brahman.
PADMA: Lotus
PADMASANA: Lotus pose.
PALI: A language in which sacred books of Buddhism are found.
PANCHADASI: A book of Vedanta philosophy written by Swami Vidyaranya.
PANCHADHARANA: Five kinds of concentration of the five elements.
PANDITS: Men of wisdom.
PARA: Super, higher, (highest), Supreme.
PARA-BRAHMAN: Absolute.
PARAM DHAMA: Supreme abode.
PARAMAHAMSA: The highest class of Sannyasins
PARAMPARA: Succession.
PARAVAK: Transcendental sound; a mystic sound.
PARICHAYA: A state reached in Pranayama
PARIPURNA: Full; perfect.
PARIVRAJAKA: Wandering monk.
PARVATI: Lord Siva's Consort.
PASCHIMOTTANASANA: A Hatha Yogic pose.
PASU-SVABHAVA: Animal nature; bestial nature.
PASYANTI: The subtle state of sound.
PATANJALI: The author of Yoga-Sutras.
PATIVRATA: A chaste woman devoted to her husband.
PAV: Quarter.
PINDANDA: Microcosm
PINGALA: A psychic nerve-current which terminates in the right nostril; it is heating in its effect (Solar nerve).
PITAMBARA: Yellow cloth.
PLIHA-Inflammation of the spleen.
PRAHLADA: Name of a demon devotee of Lord Hari.
PRAJNA: Intellect; Consciousness.
PRAJNANA: Consciousness.
PRAKASA: Light; luminosity; brightness.
PRAKRITI: Mother Nature, causal matter.
PRALAYA: Dissolution of the cosmos
PRANA: Vital energy, life: breath, life: force
PRANAVA: The sacred syllable Om.
PRANAVADIN: One who advocates the theory of Prana
PRANAYAMA: Breath: control
PRANAYAMA: Practice of breath-control.
PRAPTI-PRAPYAM: The experience that "I have obtained everything."
PRARABDHA: The portion of Karma (action) that determines one's present life.
PRASADA: Cheerfulness; tranquillity.
PRASNA: An Upanishad.
PRASVASA: Expiration of Breath
PRATIPAKSHA: Opposite.
PRATISHTHA: Reputation.
PRATYAHARA: Abstraction of senses; fifth step in Raja Yoga.
PRATYAK: Inner.
PRAVAHA: Continuity.
PRAVRITTI: Extrovert life.
PRAYAGA: A place of pilgrimage in India.
PREMA: Divine Love.
PRERAKA: Prompter; inspirer.
PRITHIVI: Earth.
PRITHVI: Element of earth with density and fragrance characteristic to it
PUJA: Worship; adoration.
PUJA:Worship,adoration
PURAKA: Inhalation
Puraka-Inhalation.
PURANA: Hindu myths and legends.
PURANA: Sacred works dealing with the doctrines of creation, etc.
PURNA-JNANI: A full-blown sage.
PURNA-YOGI: A full-blown yogi.
PURUSHA: The Supreme Being.
PURUSHARTHA: Human effort.
R
RADHA: The name of a devotee who had transcendental   love for Lord Krishna.
RAGA: Attachment.
RAGA; RAGINI: A musical mode.
RAGA-Attraction.
RAJA YOGA: A system of Yoga generally taken to be the one propounded by Patanjali Maharshi, i.e., Ashtanga Yoga.
RAJA YOGI: One who practises Raja Yoga.
RAJA: King.
RAJAS: One of the three qualities of Prakriti which generates passion and restlessness.
RAJAS-Passion.
RAJASUYA-YAJNA: A sacrifice performed by a monarch as a mark of his subduing all other kings.
RAJA-YOGA: A system of Yoga generally taken to be the one propounded by Patanjali Maharishi, i.e., Ashtanga Yoga. Click here for a discourse on Raja Yoga/Ashtanga Yoga.
RAJESVARI: God in the aspect of Mother of Universe.
RAMA (CHANDRA): Lord Rama; incarnation of Lord Vishnu.
RAMATIRTHA: A saint.
RAMAYANA: A holy narrative of Lord Rama.
RASA: Taste.
RASASVADA: Tasting the bliss of lower Samadhi.
RASAYANAS: A class of people who try to make the body strong and healthy by taking special medicines.
RATNAKAR: Sage Valmiki in his early life as a dacoit.
RECHAKA: Exhalation of breath.
RIDDHIS: Nine varieties of extraordinary exaltation.
RIK: Rig-Veda (one of the four Vedas).
RISHI: Sage.
RISHIKESH: A sacred place in the Himalayas.
RUDRA: Lord Siva.
RUDRAKSHA: A kind of berries, seeds of which are worn by religious sects as rosary.
RUPA: Form.
S
SABIJA: With seed; a Samadhi wherein the seed of Karmas (actions) is not destroyed.
SADACHARA: Right conduct.
SADASIVA: The presiding Deity of the thousand petalled-lotus in the crown of the head.
SADHAKA-Aspirant, a practitioner.
SADHANA: Spiritual practice
SADHANA-Spiritual practice.
SADHU: Pious man; Sannyasin.
SAGARA: Ocean.
SAGUNA: With attributes.
SAHADEVA: A Pandava-brother of Arjuna.
SAHAJA: Natural, true, native
SAHASA: Tenacity; application.
SAHASRANAMA: The thousand Names of the Lord.
SAHASRARA: 1000 petalled lotus at the crown of head
SAHASRARA: A Yogic centre called thousand petalled-lotus in the crown of the head.
SAKARA: With form.
SAKSHATKARA: Direct realisation.
SAKSHI: Seer; witnessing principle.
SAKTI: Power; the feminine aspect of Divinity.
SAKTI-SANCHAR: Transference of power by a developed Yogi.
SALABHASANA: A Hatha Yogic exercise.
SALIGRAMA: A shell used for meditating upon Lord Vishnu.
SAMA GANA: Hymns of the Sama Veda.
SAMA: Serenity, Control of mind, tranquillity
SAMADHI: State of superconsciousness, where Absoluteness is experienced attended with all-knowledge and joy. Oneness, perfect absorption of mind in Yoga.
SAMADHI-Superconscious state, God-consciousness.
SAMATA: Balanced state of mind.
SAMBHAVI: A Yogic technique of concentration
SAMPAT: Quality,Wealth; virtues.
SAMPRADAYA: Cult.
SAMPRAJNATA: Lower Samadhi with the triad of meditator, meditation and the meditated.
SAMSARA: Life through repeated births and deaths,  process of worldly life
SAMSARA: The process of worldly life.
SAMSAYA: Doubt.
SAMSKARA: Impression, prenatal tendency
SAMSKARAS: Impressions in the subconscious mind.
SAMSKARAS-Impressions of sense-objects.
SAMYAMA: Concentration, meditation and Samadhi practised at one and the same time.
SAMYAMA: Perfect restraint, an all-complete condition of balance and repose, concentration, meditation and Samadhi.
SAMYAVASTHA: State of equilibrium.
SANANDA: With bliss (a kind of Samadhi).
SANCHARA: Movement.
SANCHITA: Accumulated action due to previous births.
SANDHI: Junction.
SANDHYA: Dusk.
SANDHYA: Junction (of sunrise and sunset)
SANKALPA: Thought; imagination.
SANKARA: The well known teacher of Vedanta philosophy. Click here for a biography.
SANKARACHARYA: The well-known teacher of Vedanta philosophy.
SANKHA NADA: Sound produced by conch.
SANKIRTAN: Singing of divine songs.
SANNYASA: Renunciation of social ties, 4th stage in Hindu life
SANNYASINS: Those who have embraced the life of complete renunciation.
SANTA: Peaceful.
SANTI: Peace, quietness
SANTOSHA: Contentment.
SARASVATI: Goddess of speech.
SARIRA: Body.
SARVA: All.
SARVANGASANA: A Hatha Yogic exercise.
SARVA-VIT: Knower of all; a liberated sage.
SASTRA: Scripture, word of authority
SAT: Existence absolute.
SATAVADHANI: One who does 100 things at the same time
SATCHIDANANDA: Existence absolute(Sat), Knowledge absolute(Chid), Bliss absolute(Ananda).
SAT-CHIT-ANANDA: Existence-Knowledge-Bliss Absolute.
SATSANG: Association with the wise.
SATTVA: Purity-one of the three qualities of nature.
SATYA YUGA: The age of predominating in piety and righteousness.
SATYA: Truth.
SATYA-YUGA: the Age of Truth, the first of the four Hindu time-cycles.
SAUCHA: Purity.
SAVIKALPA: Lower Samadhi with the triad of meditator, meditation and meditated.
SESHADRI: Name of a sage.
SHABDA: Sound.
SHAMS TABRIEZ: Name of a Sufi sage.
SHATCHAKRAS: The six Chakras or nerve: plexuses through which Kundalini passes.
SHYAMA: Lord Krishna.
SIDDHANTA: Established tenet of doctrine.
SIDDHA-Perfected Yogi.
SIDDHASANA: A pose for meditation.
SIDDHI-Perfection, psychic powers.
SIRSHASANA: Topsy-turvy pose of Hatha Yoga.
SITA: The devoted wife of Lord Rama.
SITALI: A breathing exercise with cooling effect.
SIVA: Lord Siva - bestower of auspiciousness on His devotees.
SIVARATRI: A Hindu festival dedicated to Lord Siva.
SKANDHA: Chapter.
SLOKA: Verse.
SOHAM: "I am That."
SOKA: Sorrow.
SPARSA: Touch.
SPHATIKA: Crystal.
SPHURANA: Rising (of thought).
SRADDHA: Faith
SRAVANA: Hearing.
SRI: Auspiciousness-a name is qualified by putting "Sri" before it as a mark of courtesy and auspiciousness.
SRISHTI: Creation.
SRUTIS: Upanishads; revelations; Vedas.
STABDHA: Stupefied state of mind.
STHIRATA-Firmness, steadiness.
STHITA: Established.
STHULA: Gross.
STOTRA: Hymn.
STYANA: Sloth; idleness; indisposition of the mind to work.
SUDDHA: Pure.
SUFI: A Mohammedan sect.
SUKA DEVA: Name of a sage.
SUKHA: Bliss.
SUKHA: Happiness.
SUKSHMA: Fine, subtle, indivisible
SUKSHMA: Subtle.
SURYA: Sun
SUSHUMNA: Nerve: current in spinal canal from Muladhara to crown of head
SUSHUMNA: The chief among astral tubes in the human body running inside the spinal column.
SUSHUMNA: The Yogic nerve through which Kundalini passes.
SUTRA: Aphorism.
SUTRATMA: Cosmic mind; the immanent Deity of the totality of the subtle bodies.
SVABHAVA: One's own nature due to impressions of the past actions.
SVADHISHTHANA: The second of the six Chakras according to Hatha Yoga.
SVADHYAYA-Study of religious books, scriptures.
SVAHA: Word uttered while offering an oblation; offering to God; exclamation used in offerings
SVAJATIYA: The idea of one's own essential nature.
SVAPNA: Dream.
SVARUPA: Essence; the essential nature of Brahman.
SVARUPA: Essential nature; Reality.
SVASTIKA: A Hatha Yogic pose for meditation.
SVAYAMJYOTIS: Self-light; Atman.
SVETASVATARA: An Upanishad.
T
TADAKARA; TADRUPA: Identification.
TADBODHA: Knowledge of the nature of Brahman.
TAILADHARAVAT: Like continuous flow of oil.
TAMAS: Darkness, inertia, dullness
TAMAS: One of the three qualities of nature which generates inertia, laziness, dullness and infatuation.
TAMAS; TAMO-GUNA: One of the three qualities of nature which generates inertia, laziness, dullness and infatuation.
TAMAS-Inertia, darkness.
TANDRI: Drowsiness
TANDRI: Drowsiness; half sleep state.
TANMATRA: Rudimentary elements.
TANMATRA: Subtle, undifferentiated root elements of matter.
TANMAYA (TA): State of absorption.
TANTRIKA: Belonging to Tantra which is a path of Sadhana laying great stress upon repetition of Mantra and other esoteric meditations.
TANUMANASI: Thread-like state of mind.
TAPANIYA: Name of an Upanishad.
TAPAS: Austerity.
TAPASCHARYA: Practice of austerity.
TAPASCHARYA: Practice of austerity.
TARKA-SANGRAHA: A book of logic.
TARKIKA: Logician.
TAT TVAM ASI: "Thou art That"-a great sentence.
TATTVA: Essence; principle.
TEHSILDAR: Revenue officer.
TEJAS: Spiritual aura.
TEJOMAYA: Full of light; resplendent.
TEVARAM: Songs of the South Indian mystics.
TILAKA: A mark on the forehead.
TIRASKARA: Disrespect; insult.
TITIKSHA: Endurance; bearing with equanimity heat and cold, pleasure and pain, etc.
TITTIBHA: A bird.
TIVRA: Intense; keen; sharp.
TRATAKA: Steady gazing.
TRIKUTI: The space between the two eyebrows.
TRIKUTI-The space between the eyebrows.
TRIPHALA: An Ayurvedic medicine.
TRIPTI: Satisfaction.
TRIPURA SAMHARA: Destruction of demons Tripuras by Lord Siva.
TRIPUTI: The triad-seer, sight and seen.
TRISHNA: Thirsting for objects; craving after sense-objects, Sense-hankering
TRIVENI: The place where the three holy rivers Ganga, Yamuna and Sarasvati meet.
TUKARAM: A saint.
TULASI: Holy Basil plant.
TULASIDAS: The saint author of the Hindi Ramayana (Ramcharitmanas).
TURIYA: The state of superconsciousness, the fourth state transcending the waking, dreaming and deep sleep states.
TUSHNIM: Neutral state of mind, which is an obstacle in meditation.
TUSHTI: Contentment.
TYAGA: Renunciation (of egoism, desires and the world).
U
UDANA: Vital force near the throat
UDDALAKA: A great Rishi (sage) of yore.
UDDHAVA: A friend and great devotee of Lord Krishna.
UDDIYANA-BANDHA: A Hatha Yogic exercise.
UMA: Lord Siva's Consort.
UPADESA: Spiritual advice, Instruction.
UPADHI: Limiting adjunct.
UPANISHAD: Revelation; text dealing with Ultimate Truth and Its Realisation.
UPANISHAD: Vedantic scriptures, end of Vedas
UPANISHADS: Revelation; text dealing with Ultimate Truth and Its Realization.
UPARATI: Satiety in the enjoyment of sense-objects.
UPASANA VAKYA: A sentence for meditation.
UPASANA-Worship.
UPASYA: Object of devout meditation.
UPEKSHA: Indifference.
URDHVARETO: Yogi: A Yogi whose energies have been sublimated into spiritual power
USHA-PANA: Drinking water in the morning as soon as one gets up after cleaning the teeth. This is Hatha Yogic treatment for constipation.
UTSAHA: Cheerfulness, enthusiasm
UTSAHA: Enthusiasm.
UTTARAKASI: A place in the Himalayas.
V
VAIKHARI: Articulate form of sound.
VAIKUNTHA: The abode of Lord Vishnu.
VAIRAGYA: Dispassion.
VAIRAGYA: Indifference, disgust for worldly things and en joyments
VAJRA: Firmness, thunderbolt
VAJRASANA: A Hatha Yogic pose.
VAK: Speech.
VAK-INDRIYA: The organ of speech.
VAKYA: Sentence.
VALLABHA: The Lord; Master.
VALMIKI: The holy sage and author of the Sanskrit
VANDANA: Adoration; worship.
VARADANDA: The staff of blessings.
VASANA: Subtle desire
VASANA-Impulse, subtle form of desire.
VASANA-KSHYA: Desireless.
VASANAS: Subtle desires.
VASTU: Article, Reality.
VAYU: Wind, vital air, Prana
VEDANTA: The school of Hindu thoughts (based primarily on the Upanishads).
VEDANTINS: Those who follow the path of Vedanta.
VEDAS: The highest authority among the Aryans of India.
VEDAS: The most ancient authentic scripture of the Hindus, a revealed scripture and therefore free from imperfections.
VEERYA: Seminal energy.
VETTA: Knower.
VICHARA: Enquiry into the nature of the Self, Truth, Absolute, Brahman.
VICHARA-SAGARA: Book treating with Vedanta philosophy.
VIGHNA: Obstacle.
VIGRAHA: Attack.
VIJATIYA: Relating to not-Self; thoughts of worldly objects.
VIKARA: Passionate excitement.
VIKSHEPA: The tossing of mind.
VIKSHIPTA: Scattered; gathering mind.
VIMARSA: Dissatisfaction; displeasure.
VINA: A musical instrument.
VIPARITA: Contrary.
VIRASANA: A Hatha Yogic pose.
VIRAT: Macrocosm; Lord in His form as the manifested universe.
VIRYA: Seminal fluid, Seminal energy
VISHAYA: Sense-objects.
VISHNU: Lord Vishnu-the preserver and sustainer.
VISRANTI: Resting.
VISUDDHA: Laryngeal plexus
VISUDDHA: Pure.
VISVARUPA: Cosmic form.
VIVARTA: Illusory appearance; apparent change.
VIVEKA: Discrimination.
VIVEKACHUDAMANI: A Vedantic book.
VIVEKA-Discrimination between the real and the unreal.
VRITTI: A wave in the mind-lake.
VRITTI: Thought-wave; mental modification.
VRITTINIRODHA: Control of thought-waves.
VYANA: All: pervading Prana
VYAVAHARA: Worldly activity; phenomenal, relative world
Y
YAAMA: A period of three hours
YAJNA: Sacrifice
YAJNAVALKYA: A great sage of yore.
YAJUS: Yajur-Veda.
YAMA: First step in Raja Yoga; Eternal vows - non-violence, truthfulness, non-stealing, etc.
YATI: An ascetic or a Sannyasi or a monk.
YATRA: Pilgrimage
YOGA BHRASHTA: One who has fallen from the high state of Yoga in his previous birth.
YOGA: Union; union with the Supreme Being - any course that makes for such union. Click here for a discourse on Yoga.
YOGARUDHA: One who is established in Yoga.
YOGAVASISHTHA: A monumental work on Vedanta.
YOGI (N): One who practices Yoga; one who is established in Yoga.
YOGINDRA: Lord of Yogis.
YONI MUDRA: A Hatha Yogic exercise.
YONI: Source.
YUDHISHTHIRA: The eldest of the Pandavas-Arjuna's brother.
YUKTI-Common-sense, logic.
Z
ZAMINDAR: A rich landlord.
ZEND AVESTA: The holy scripture of the Persians.


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